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Note: these references were cited in the report, additional references can be found in Attachment #6 and the Committee Docket list in Attachment #7.

Abramson, M.J., Hensley, M.J., Saunders, N.A., Wlodarczyk, J.H. Evaluation of a New Asthma Questionnaire. J. Asthma 28:129-139 (1991).

Adams, R. (editor). Occupational Skin Disease, 2nd edit. Saunders, Philadelphia (1990).

Adams, Robed, Cutting Oils and the Skin, Handout of Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/97 Washington, DC (1997).

Allen, W. The Small and Medium Sized Jobshop Perspective - the New OSHA Standard Cradle to Grave Fluid Management, presented at a conference of the American Machinist, Spring, 1998, provided to MWFSAC for June/July, 1998 meeting in Denver, CO (1998).

Ameille, Jacques, Wild, Pascal, Choudat, Dominique, Ohi, Gerard, Vaucouleur, Jean Francois, Chanut, Jean Claude, Brochard, Patrick, Respiratory Symptoms, Ventilatory Impairment and Bronchial Reactivity in Oil Mist-Exposed Automobile Workers, Am J. Ind. Med. 27:247-256 (1995).

AAMA, Symposium Proceedings: The Industrial Metalworking Environment. Assessment and Control, Nov 13-16, Dearborn, MI (1996)

AAMA, Symposium Proceedings: The Industrial Metalworking Environment. Assessment and Control, Metalworking Fluids Symposium II, Sept. 15-18, 1997 Detroit, MI (1998)

ACGIH, Industrial Ventilation; A Manual of Recommended Practice, 22nd edition, ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH (1995).

ACGIH, Particle Size Selective Sampling in the Workplace, ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH (1985)

ACGIH, 1999 TLVsR and BEIsR, Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents, Biological Exposure Indices, ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH (1999)

ANSI, Mist Control Considerations for the Design, Installation and Use of Machine Tools using Metalworking Fluids, ANSI B11 TR 2-1997

ASTM Provisional Practice for Personal Sampling and Analysis of Endotoxin in Metal Removing Fluid Aerosols in Workplace Atmospheres, ASTM PS 94-98 West Conshohocken, PA (1998).

ASTM Provisional Standard Test Method for Metal Removal Fluid Aerosol in Workplace Atmospheres, ASTM PS 42-97, West Conshohocken, PA (1997)

ASTM Standard Guide for Acute Animal Toxicity Testing of Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids, ASTM E1302-89 (Re-approved 1993), West Conshohocken, PA (1990)

ASTM, Standard Guide for Air Sampling Strategies for Worker and Workplace Protection, ASTM E 1370-96, West Conshohocken, PA (1996)

ASTM Standard Practice for Minimizing Effects of Aerosols in the Wet Metal Removal Environment, ASTM E 1972-98, West Conshohocken, PA (1998).

ASTM, Standard Practice for Safe Use of Water-Miscible Metalworking Fluids, ASTM E 1497-94, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA (1994).

ASTM Standard Test Method for Determining Carcinogenic Potential of Virgin Base Oils in Metalworking Fluids: ASTM E 1687-95, West Conshohocken, PA (1995)

American Thoracic Society. Lung Function Testing: Selection of Reference Values and Interpretation Strategies, Amer. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144:1202-1218 (1991).

American Thoracic Society. Standardization of Spirometry: 1994 Update. Amer. Rev. Respir. Dis. 152:1107-1136 (1995).

Anderson, Henry, Investigation of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, Kenosha Engine Plant,1996, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, June 29,1998, Denver, CO (1998).

Bai, Jun, Peat, Jennifer, Berry, Geoffrey, Marks, Guy, Woolcock, Ann, Questionnaire Items That Predict Asthma and Other Respiratory Conditions in Adults, Chest 114:5,1343 (1998).

Balmes, J.R. Surveillance for Occupational Asthma. Occup. Med: State of the Art Rev. 6:1,101-110 (1991).

Bayard, Steven, Update on OSHA Preliminary Risk Assessment for MWFs,

Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, July 7,1999, Washington, DC (1999).

Becklake, J.R., White, N. Sources of Variation in Spirometric Measurements: Identifying the Signal and Dealing with the Noise. Occup. Med: State of the Art Reviews 2:241-264 (1993).

Becklake, J.R., The Work Relatedness of Airways Dysfunction. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium in Epidemiology in Occupational Health, Sept 23-25,1992, DHHS, NIOSH #94-112, Cincinnati, OH (1994).

Bernstein, I.L., Chan-Yeung, M., Malo, J.L., Bernstein, D. Asthma in the Workplace. New York: Marcel Dekker (1993).

Bernstein, D.I., Lummus, Z.L, Santilli, G., Siskosky, J., Berstein, I.L. Machine Operator's Lung: a Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Disorder Associated with Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Aerosols. Chest 108:3,636-641 (1995).

Brodkin, C.A. and Rosenstock, L. The Relation Between Chronic Respiratory Symptoms and Ventilatory Capacity in Adults. Occup. Med.: State of the Art Reviews 2:363-374 (1993).

Burch, D., Job Shop Metal Working Companies, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/10/97 Washington, DC (1997)

Burke, John, Industry Concerns and Future Directions Regarding Exposure to Metalworking Fluids, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 10/20/98, Detroit, MI (1998).

Burney, P.G.J., Laitenine, L.A., Perdrizet, S., Huckauf, et al. Validity and Repeatability of the IUATLD (1984) Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire: An International Comparison. Eur. Respir. J. 2:940-945 (1989).

Burney, P.S. et al, European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Variations in the Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms, Self-Reported Asthma Attacks, and Use of Asthma Medications in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Eur. Respir. J. 9:687-695 (1996).

Burt, R. Industry Profile for MWF Standard, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/98 (1998).

Byers, Jerry P. (editor), Metalworking Fluids, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY (1994).

Calvert, Geoffrey. Occupational Cancer and Metalworking Fluids, Summary of NIOSH Criteria Document, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 7/1/98, Denver, CO (1998).

Calvert, Geoffrey, Cancer Risk Among Workers Exposed to Metalworking Fluids: A Systematic Review, American J. of Industrial Medicine 33:282-292 (1998).

Chan-Yeung, Moira, and Malo, Jean-Luc, Occupational Asthma, The New England J. of Medicine 333:2,107-112 (1995).

Chan-Yeung, M., Chang, J.H., Manfreda, J., Ferguson, A., Becker, A. Changes in Peak Flow, Symptom Score, and the Use of Medication during Acute Exacerbations of Asthma. Amer. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med 154:889-893 (1996).

29 CFR 1910.134 OSHA Respiratory Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Washington, DC (1998).

Checkoway, H., Pearce, N.E., Crawford-Brown, D.J., Research Methods in Occupational Epidemiology, Oxford Press, Oxford, UK (1989).

Cole, P. A Critique of the NIOSH Document "Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposures to Metalworking Fluids" prepared for Caterpillar, Inc. 5/10/96. (1996).

Corsey, Adrian & Burt, Robert, Summary Tables of Industry Profile, 2/8/99 (1999).

Donoghue, A.M. Respiratory Symptoms Questionnaire for Asthma

Epidemiology: Validity and Reproducibility (Letter). Thorax 48:871 (1993).

Eisen, Ellen, Holcroft, Christina, Greaves, lan, Wegman, David, Woskie, Susan and Monson, Richard, A Strategy to Reduce Healthy Worker Effect in a Cross-Sectional Study of Asthma and Metalworking Fluids, Am J. of Ind. Med. 31: 671677 (1997).

Ely, T., Pedley, S., Hearne, F., Stille, W. A Study of Mortality, Symptoms and Respiratory Function in Humans Occupationally Exposed to Oil Mist. J. Occup. Med 12:7, 253-261 (1970).

Enarson, Donald, Vedal, Sverre, Schulzer, Michael, Dybuncio, Anne, Chan-Yeung, Moira, Asthma, Asthma like Symptoms, Chronic Bronchitis and Degree of Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Epidemiologic Surveys, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis 136:613-617(1987).

Exposure Assessment Work Group, Answers to Questions, Feb. 8,1999.

Federal Register. Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids, Notice of Intent to Form a Standard Advisory Committee; Request for Committee Membership Nominations. Federal Register 61:169, 45459-45460, August 28 (1996).

Felinski, David, AAMA Economic Impact Analysis, AAMA, 12/22/98 (1998).

Fennelly, Kevin, Occupational Asthma - Clinical Aspects, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC 6/29/98, Denver, CO (1998).

Ferris, B.G. Epidemiology Standardization Project: Section C. Questionnaires. Amer. Rev. Respir. Dis. 118 (part 2):lO-27 (1978).

Fine, Larry, NIOSH Criteria Document & Summary Statement, Introduction to the NIOSH Criteria Document, and Respiratory Effects of MWF, Handouts for Presentation to MWFSAC, Washington, DC (1997).

Fox, H. Anderson H., Moen, T., Gruetzmacher, et al. Metalworking Fluid Associated Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: an Outbreak Investigation and Case-Control Study. Am. J. Indust. Med. 35:58-67 (1999).

Freeman, Andrew, Lockey, James, Hawley, Philip, Biddinger, Paul, Trout, Douglas, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in a Machinist Am. J. of Industrial Medicine 34:387-392 (1998).

Gannon, Paul and Burge, P. Sherwood. A Preliminary Report of A Surveillance Scheme of Occupational Asthma in the West Midlands, Br. J. of Ind. Med 48:579-582 (1991).

Gannon, Paul and Burge, P. Sherwood. The SHIELD Scheme in the West Midlands Region, United Kingdom, Br. J. of Ind. Med 50:791-796 (1993).

Gauthier, Stephen, Reports & Personal Experiences, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/97, Washington, DC (1997)

Gauthier, S., Management of and Exposures to MWFs, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC 2/9/99, Washington, DC (1999).

Government Options Work Group, Handout on Various Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Actions and Typical Components of Standards, 1/22/98 (1998).

Greaves, I.A., Eisen, E.A., Smith T.J., Pothier, L.J., Kriebel, D., Woskie, S.R. et al, Respiratory Health of Automobile Workers Exposed to Metal-Working Fluid Aerosols II. Respiratory Symptoms. Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health, Occupational Health Program, Final Draft (1995a).

Greaves, I.A., Eisen, E.A., Smith T.J., Pothier, L.J., Kriebel, D., Woskie, S.R. et al, Respiratory Health of Automobile Workers Esposed to Metal-Working Fluid Aerosols III.Lung Spirometry Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health, Occupational Health Program, Final Draft (1995b).

Greaves, lan, Eisen, Ellen, Smith, Thomas, Pothier, Lucille, Kriebel, David, Woskie, Susan, Kennedy, Susan, Shalat, Stuart, and Monson, Richard, Respiratory Health of Automobile Workers Exposed to Metal-Working Fluid Aerosols: Respiratory Symptoms Am. J. of Ind. Med 32:450-459 (1997).

Halperin, W.E., Frazier, T.M. Surveillance for the Effects of Workplace Exposure. Annu. Rev. Public Health 6:419-432 (1985).

Halperin, W., Baker, E.L. Public Health Surveillance. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1992).

Hands, David, and Sheehan, Maura, MRF Mist - Personal Exposures and Area Concentrations: A Comparison of New and Old Transmission Case Lines, Handout of Presentation to MWFSAC, 3/25/98, Sharonville, OH (1998).

Hands, David, Sheehan, Maura, Wong, Ben and Lick Henry, Comparison of Metalworking Fluid Mist Exposures from Machining with Different Levels of Machine Enclosure, AIHAJ 57:1173-1179 (1996).

Hankinson, J.L., Odencrantz, J.R., Fedan, K.B. Spirometric Reference Values from a Sample of the General U.S.Population. Amer. J. Respir. Grit Care Med. 159:179-187 (1999).

Henry, LaVaughn, An Economic Cost Analysis of Increasing the MWF Aerosol

Standard from 5 mg/m3 to 0.5 mg/m3 on Ford Motor Company, 11/12/98 (1998).

Hoffman, D., Respiratory Effects, Analysis of Studies, Presentation to MWFSAC, 6/30/98 Denver, CO (1998a)

Hoffman, Daniel, Review of the Evidence for the Health Effects of Metal Removing Fluids, 12/7/98 Handout provided by ILMA (1998b).

Howell, John, Metal Removal Fluids: Composition and Use, Handout from Presentation at MWFSAC meeting, 9/2/97, Washington, DC (1997).

Howell, John, Lucke, William and Steigerwald, John, Metal Removal Fluids: Composition and Use, article provided at presentation at MWFSAC meeting, 9/2/97, Washington, DC (1997).

Howell, John ASTM E-34.50 Health and Safety Standards for Metalworking Fluids Voluntary Consensus Standard Writing in Action, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC 4/8/98, Cleveland OH (1998).

Howell, J., ILMA Product Stewardship, update 10/19/98, Detroit, MI (1998).

Howell, J., ILMA Product Stewardship, update 4/8/98, Cleveland, OH (1998).

Hughes, Robert, Metalworking Fluid Survey Database Field Descriptions, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 4/2/98, Cleveland, OH (1998).

Huovinen, Elisa, Kaprio, Jaakko, Vesterinen, Erkki, Koskenvuo, Markku, Mortality of Adults with Asthma: A Prospective Cohort Study. Thorax: 52:49-54 (1997).

ILMA, What Cutting Fluids Are Made of: Typical Components for Each of the Four Types of MWFs, ILMA, Washington, DC (1998).

Insurance Research Council (IRI), Motivating Safety in the Workplace, Insurance Research Council Inc., Wheaton, IL (1995).

Itschner, L., Hinnen, U. and Elsner, P. Skin Risk Assessment of Metalworking Fluids: A Survey among Swiss Suppliers. Dermatology 193:1,33-35 (1996).

Johnston, W., Machine Enclosure Feasibility, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 3/25/98, Sharonville, OH (1998).

Jones, P.W. et al. A Self-Complete Measure of Health Status for Chronic Airflow Limitation: The St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145:1321-1327 (1992).

Kamrin, Michael, Katz, Dolores, Walter, Martha, Reporting on Risk, A Handbook for Journalists and Citizens, The Annapolis Center, Annapolis, MD (1995).

Kelly, Ralph, Metalworking Fluid Health and Safety -- History, Chronology and Future, Compoundings, September (1996).

Kennedy, Susan, Greaves, lan, Kriebel, David, Eisen, Ellen, Smith, Thomas and Woskie, Susan, Acute Pulmonary Responses Among Automobile Workers Exposed to Aerosols of Machining Fluids, Am. J. of Ind Med 15:627-641 (1989).

Kennedy, Susan, Chan-Yeung, Moira, Teschke, Kay and Kaden, Barbara. Change in Airway Responsiveness among Apprentices Exposed to Metalworking Fluids, Am J. Respir. Crit. Care Med 159:87-93 (1999)

Kramer, Costs of Oil Mist Control Installations at Ford Motor Company, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 3/25/98, Sharonville, OH (1998).

Kreibel, D., Sama, S.R., Woskie, S., Christiani, D., Eisen, E., Hammond, S., Milton, D., Smith, M. and Virji, M. A Field Investigation of the Acute Respiratory Effects of Metalworking Fluids I. Effects of Aerosol Exposures, Am J. Ind. Med 31:6,756-766 (1997).

Kreiss, K. Cox-Ganser, J. Metalworking Fluid-Associated Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: A Workshop Summary. Am. J. Industr. Med. 32:423 (1997).

Kresniak, K., Kowalski, J., Droszcz, W., Piotrowska, B., Respiratory Abnormalities in Workers Exposed to Oil Mist. Eur. J. Respir. Dis. Suppl 62:113, 88-89 (1981).

Kushner, K., The Use of Metal Removal Fluids in the Bearing Manufacturing Process, Presentation to MWFSAC 10/20/98 Detroit, MI (1998).

Kushner, K. Using Out-Patient and In-Patient Health Care Claims Data to Evaluate the Prevalence of Non-Malignant Respiratory Diseases and Skin Diseases in Metalworking Fluid Workers vs. Non-MWF Workers, Timken Company, Submitted to MWFSAC, June 1999.

Lange, Peter, Parner, J. Vestbo, J. Schnohr, P and Jensen, G., A Fifteen Year Follow-up Study of Ventilatory Function in Adults with Asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 339:1194-1200 (1998).

Leidel, Nelson, Busch, Kenneth, Lynch, Jeremiah, Occupational Exposure Sampling Strategy Manual, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (1977).

Leigh, J. Paul and Miller, Ted, Ranking Occupations Based Upon the Costs of Job-Related Injuries and Diseases, J. of Occ. & Env. Med. 39:12,1170-1182 (1997).

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Leith, D., Raynor, P., Boundy, M., Cooper, S. Performance of Industrial Equipment to Collect Coolant Mist. AIHAJ 57:12,1142-1148 (1996b).

Leith, David, Boundy, Maryanne, Raynor, Peter, Cooper, Steven, Mist Collector Performance, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 3/98 Sharonville, OH (1998).

Lick, Henry, Control of MWFs Exposures, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/97, Washington, DC (1997).

Lucke, W. and Ernst, J., Formation and Precursors of Nitrosamines in Metalworking Fluids, Lubrication Engineering: J. of the Soc. of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers 49:4, 271-275 (1993).

Lucke, William, Health and Safety of Metalworking Fluids, Fluid Formulation: A View into the Future, Lubrication Engineering, 596-604 August (1996).

Lucke, William, History of Metalworking Fluid Formulation Changes, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 6/30/98 (1998).

Lucke, W.,History of Metalworking Fluid Formulation Changes, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 6/30/98

Marks, J.G. and Deleo, VA. Contact and Occupational Dermatology. St. Louis, MO, Mosby Year Book (1992).

Massin, N., Bohadana, A., Wild, P., Goutet, P., Kirstetter, H., Toamain, J., Airway Responsiveness, Respiratory Symptoms, and Exposures to Soluble Oil Mist in Mechanical Workers. Occup. Environ. Med 53:11,748-752 (1996).

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MiOSHA, Report to Federal Mogul, R#201641263, Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Grand Rapids, MI (1999).

MiOSHA, Report to American Axle, O#201629748, Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Grand Rapids, MI (1999).

MiOSHA, Report to Delphi Energy, I#114531817, Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Grand Rapids, MI (1998).

MiOSHA, Report to Carpenter Enterprises Report # 902746254, Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services, Grand Rapids, MI (1998).

Milton, D.K., Solomon, D.M., Roseillo, R.A., Herrick, R.F., Risk and Incidence of Asthma Attributable to Occupational Exposure Among HMO Members. Amer. J. Indust. Med. 33:1-10 (1998),

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NIOSH, The Recirculation of Exhaust Air, NIOSH 78-141, Cincinnati, OH (1978).

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NIOSH, Health Hazard Evaluation, Caterpillar Mossville Facility, HETA 970331, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (1998)

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation by Trout, Douglas, Reh, Beth, Weber, Angela, NIOSH HHE, Ford Electronics and Refrigeration Corporation, Connersville, IN. NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (1998)(also cited under Trout)

NIOSH, Health Hazard Evaluation: Meritor Plant, NIOSH, HETA 98-0050 (interim), 3/18/98, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH (1998).

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O'Brien, Dennis, Machining and Grinding Operations, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 9/2/97, Washington, DC (1997).

O'Brien, Dennis, Control Measures for MWFs, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 3/25/98, Sharonville, OH (1998).

O'Brien, D. General Considerations for Air Sampling, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/98, Washington, DC (1998).

OSHA, Charter for the Metalworking Fluids Standards Advisory Committee, OSHA, Washington, DC (1997).

OSHA Office of Regulatory Analysis, Overview of Statistical Information on Work Related Dermatitis, OSHA, Washington, DC (1998).

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Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, Jimmerfield Decision, Claim # 20570833-0 10/26/98, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA (1998).

Organization Resources Counselors' (ORC) Management of the Metal Removal Fluid Environment, 2nd edition, ORC, Washington, DC (1999)

ORC, Outreach & Education Statement, 2/99, Washington, DC (1998).

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Perry, W., OSHA Risk Assessment Policy and Possible Approaches for Assessing Risks of Non-malignant Respiratory Disease, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 10/20/98, Detroit, MI (1998).

Piacitelli, Greg, Hughes, Robert, Sieber, W. Karl, Glaser, Robert, Catalano, James, Kent, Marthe, Exposures to Metalworking Fluids in Small-Size Machine Shops, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC April,1998, Cleveland, OH (1998).

Piacitelli, Greg, Hughes, Robert, Sieber, W. Karl, Glaser, Robert, Catalano, James, Kent, Marthe, Exposures to Metalworking Fluids in Small-Size Machine Shops, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC October 7,1998, Detroit, MI (1998).

PMA, Compilation of Letters from Small Business Members of PMA Citing Experiences of Minimal Health Effects and Concern about Potential MWF Regulation: PMA (1999).

PMPA, Compilation of Letters from Small Business Members of PMPA Citing Experiences of Minimal Health Effects and Concern about Potential MWF Regulation: PMPA (1999).

Pryce, D.W., Irvine, D., English, J.S.C., Rycroft, R.J.G. Soluble Oil Dermatitis: a Follow-up Study. Contact Dermatitis 21:1, 28-35 (1989).

Reeve, Gordon, Non-Malignant Respiratory Disorders Among Workers at a U.S. Automobile Manufacturer, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 10/16/98, Detroit, MI (1998a).

Reeve, Gordon, Inpatient Admissions Rates for Non-Malignant Respiratory Disease Among Workers at a U.S. Automobile Manufacturer, Preliminary, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 12/9, Washington, DC (1998b).

Reilly, J.J., Rosenman, K.D., Watt, F.C., Schill, D. et al. Surveillance for Occupational Asthma - Michigan and New Jersey, 1988-1992. Morb. Mort. Weekly Rep. 43:9-17 (1995).

Rijcken, Bert, Weiss, Scott, Longitudinal Analysis of Hyperresponsiveness and Pulmonary Function Decline, Am. J. Respir. Crit Care Med 154:S246-S249 (1996)

Robins, Thomas, Seixas, Noah, Franzblau, Alfred, Abrams, Lori, Minick, Susan, Burge, Harriet, Schork, M. Anthony, Acute Respiratory Effects on Workers Exposed to Metalworking Fluid Aerosols in an Automotive Transmission Plant, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 6/30/98, Denver, CO (1998).

Robins, Thomas, Seixas, Noah, Franzblau, Alfred, Abrams, Lori, Minick, Susan, Burge, Harriet, Schork, M. Anthony, Acute Respiratory Effects on Workers Exposed to Metalworking Fluid Aerosols in an Automotive Transmission Plant. Am. J. Ind. Med. 31:5,510-524 (1997).

Roos, D.J. and McDonald, J.C. Asthma Following Inhalation Accidents Reported to the SWORD Project. Ann. Occup. Hyg 40:645-650 (1996).

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Rose, C. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis in Rom, W. Environmental and

Occupational Medicine 3rd edit., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (1998).

Rosenman, K., Reilly, M. and Kalinowski, D., Work Related Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms Among Workers Exposed to Metal-working Fluids, Am. J. Ind. Med 24:4, 485-498 (1993).

Rosenman, K., Reilly, M. and Kalinowski, D., A State Based Surveillance

Systems for Work Related Asthma. J. Occup. Environ. Med 39:415-425 (1997).

Rosenman, Kenneth, Recommended Medical Screening Protocol for Workers Exposed to Occupational Allergens, Handout for Presentation, 3/98 Cleveland, OH (1998).

Rosenman, K. SENSOR Program: Asthma, Handout for Presentation, 3/98, Cleveland, OH (1998).

Ross, D.J., Keynes, H.L., McDonald, J.C. SWORD '96: Surveillance of Work-Related and Occupational Respiratory Disease in the UK. Occup Med 47: 377381 (1997).

Rossmoore, Harold, Microbes, Microbiocides and Metal Removal Fluids, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, June 30,1998, Denver, CO (1998). Rutstein, D.D., Mullan, R.J., Frazier, T.M., Halperin, W.E., Melius, J.M., Sestito, S.P. Sentinel Health Events (Occupational): A Basis for Physician Recognition and Public Health Surveillance. Amer. J. Public Health 73:1054-1062 (1983).

Sama, S., Kriebel, D., Woskie, S., Eisen, E., Wegman, D., Virji, M. A Field Investigation of the Acute Respiratory Effects of Metalworking Fluids. I1: Effects of Airborne Sulfur Exposures. Am. J. Ind. Med 31:6,767-776 (1997).

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Schaper, Michelle, Acute Respiratory Effects of Components Used to Formulate Metalworking Fluids, Handout for Presentation to MWFSAC, 6/20/98 Denver, CO (1998).

Silliman, Jeffrey (editor), Cutting and Grinding Fluids: Selection and

Application, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2nd edition, Dearborn (1992).

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Footnote 1 The exposure assessment group noted that "total" particulate is actually a misleading term. "Total" means a sample collected with a 37 mm closed face filter cassette, or equivalent. The cover is now known to exclude large particles, and in some cases may radically understate the true exposure. Paradoxically, "inhalable" particulate collected with an open faced sampler may exceed "total" by 3-fold in some environments, which "total" exceeds "thoracic" by only 20%.

Footnote 2 The exposure assessment group noted that "total" particulate is actually a misleading term. "Total" means a sample collected with a 37 mm closed face filter cassette, or equivalent. The cover is now known to exclude large particles, and in some cases may radically understate the true exposure. Paradoxically, "inhalable" particulate collected with an open faced sampler may exceed "total" by 3-fold in some environments, which "total" exceeds "thoracic" by only 20%.

Footnote 1 Note: Text was derived from the OSHA Formaldehyde standard. Appropriate substitutions of MWF and mass levels were made in the Formaldehyde text. CHANGES FROM THE ORIGINAL STANDARD TEXT ARE IN CAPS. Deletions from the original standard text are not shown.

The PEL is arbitrarily described as "O.X mg/m3" without stating the PEL. The STEL found in the Formaldehyde standard has been omitted based on discussions in the Committee Recommendations. This proposal assumes that there might be different action levels (or triggers by another name) for training, medical surveillance or other purposes than for monitoring exposure.

This proposal allows for 3 different analytical methods, and for the use of a properly calibrated real time aerosol monitor. The proposal retains the 80% conversion factor for closed face total to thoracic fraction proposed by NIOSH. The proposal permits employers to rely on total aerosol analyzed by extraction methods if they can demonstrate there are sources of particles in the work area unrelated to MWF emissions.

Footnote 2 Effective dates are not contained in this section. Phase in periods might be different for new and existing equipment, or for different sized workplaces.

Footnote 3 Medical surveillance or training might be triggered by different exposure levels than the action level for monitoring. The need for an action level for exposure monitoring is derived from knowledge of time and analytical variation of exposure measurements.

Footnote 4 Employees within the homogeneous exposure group would be deemed to have the same exposure as the representative sample.

Footnote 5 Use of the checklist would relieve an employer from citation for failure to conduct initial monitoring, and periodic monitoring, if OSHA were to enter the workplace and collect samples which exceeded the action level. However, the employer could still be cited for violation of all other requirements of the standard triggered by exposure level if the action level or PEL were exceeded.

Footnote 6 The Committee believes it is better to specify methods which meet the generally applied criteria for accuracy of monitoring, rather than state statistical criteria which are not readily understood by employers and employees.

Footnote 7 Where representative sampling is used, each employee within a homogeneous exposure group shall be provided the notifications applicable to that group.