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Frequently Violated OSHA Standards
Related to
Fall Hazards in the Construction Industry
October 1997 - January 2000

(Sequential Order by Standard)

Scaffold/Aerial Lift - Subpart L

   1926.451(b)(1) Each platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between the front uprights and the guardrail supports.
* 1926.451(c)(2) Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates, mud sills or other adequate firm foundation.
* 1926.451(c)(2)(i) Footings shall be level, sound, rigid, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement.
* 1926.451(e)(1) When scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers, and so on shall be used.
* 1926.451(f)(7) Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffold erection, moving, dismantling or alteration.
   1926.451(g)(1) Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet above a lower level shall be protected from falling to that lower level.
* 1926.451(g)(4)(i) Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. Guardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees other than erection/dismantling crews.
   1926.451(h)(1) In addition to wearing hardhats each employee on a scaffold shall be provided with additional protection from falling hand tools, debris, and other small objects through the installation of toeboards, screens, or guardrail systems, or through the erection of debris nets, catch platforms, or canopy structures that contain or deflect the falling objects.
   1926.452(c)(2) Frames and panels shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, which secure vertical members together laterally. The cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and align vertical members.
* 1926.453(b)(2)(iv) Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.
* 1926.453(b)(2)(v) A body belt shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.
* 1926.454(a) The employer shall have each employee who performs work while on a scaffold trained by a person qualified in the subject matter to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards.
* 1926.454(b) The employer shall have each employee who is involved in erecting, disassembling, moving,, operating, repairing, maintaining, or inspecting a scaffold trained by a competent person to recognize any hazards associated with the work in question.

Fall Protection - Subpart M

* 1926.501(b)(1) Each employee on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
   1926.501(b)(4)(i) Each employee on walking/working surfaces shall be protected from falling through holes more than 6 feet above lower levels, by personal fall arrest systems, covers, or guardrail systems erected around such holes.
   1926.501(b)(4)(ii) Each employee on a walking/working surface shall be protected from tripping in or stepping into or through holes by covers.
* 1926.501(b)(10) Each employee engaged in roofing activities on low slope roofs, with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, etc.
   1926.501(b)(11) Each employee on a steep roof with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by guardrail systems with toeboards, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
* 1926.501(b)(13) Each employee engaged in residential construction activities 6 feet or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net system, personal fall arrest system, or the absence of a fall protection plan where it is demonstrated infeasible to use the systems listed above.
   1926.501(b)(14) Each employee working on, at, above, or near wall openings (including those with chutes attached) where the outside bottom edge of the wall openings is 6 feet (1.8m) or more above lower levels and the inside bottom edge of the wall opening is less than 39 inches (1.0m) above the walking/working surface, shall be protected from falling by the use of a guardrail system, a safety net system, or a personal fall arrest system.
   1926.501(b)(15) Except as provided in 1926.500(a)(2) or in 1926.501(b)(1) through (b)(14), each employee on a walking/working surface 6 feet (1.8m) or more above lower levels shall be protected from falling by a guardrail system, safety net system, or personal fall arrest system.
   1926.502(b)(2) Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent intermediate structural members shall be installed between the tope edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there is no wall or parapet wall at least 21 inches (53cm) high.
* 1926.503(a)(1) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards.

Steel Erection - Subpart R

   1926.750(b)(1)(ii) On buildings or structures not adaptable to temporary floors, and where scaffolds are not used, safety nets shall be installed and maintained whenever the potential fall distance exceeds two stories or 25 feet. The nets shall be hung with sufficient clearance to prevent contacts with the surface of structures below.
   1926.751(d) Tag lines shall be used for controlling loads.

Stairways/Ladders - Subpart X

* 1926.1051(a) A stairway or ladder shall be provided at all personnel points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more, and no ramp, runway, sloped embankment, or personnel hoist is provided.
   1926.1052(c)(1) Stairways having four or more risers or rising more than 30 inches, whichever is less, shall be equipped with at least one handrail, and one stairrail system along each unprotected side or edge.
* 1926.1053(b)(1) When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the ladder side rails shall extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface to which the ladder is used to gain access.
   1926.1053(b)(4) Ladders shall be used only for the purpose for which they were designed.
   1926.1053(b)(13) The top or top step of a stepladder shall not be used as a step.
* 1926.1060(a) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee using ladders and stairways, as necessary.

* Denotes the standard has been cited in relationship to a work-related accident/fatality.

Note: The two steel erection standards above were cited less than 10 times, but were the only two steel erection standards cited.

The Source for this document is an OSHA IMIS database report. Each standard identified was cited a minimum of 10 instances with a maximum of 212 instances.