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Sling Safety

U.S. Department of Labor
Robert B. Reich, Secretary

Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Joseph A. Dear, Assistant Secretary

OSHA 3072
1996 (Revised)


This informational booklet is intended to provide a generic, non-exhaustive overview of a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which-are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and in the Occuparional Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current adminisuative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts.

Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission of the Federal Government. Source credit is requested but not required.

This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 219-8615; Telecommunications Device for the deaf (TDD) message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577



Contents

Introduction
Importance of the Operator
Sling Types

      Chains
      Wire Rope
      Fiber Rope and Synthetic Web
Safe Lifting Practices
      Size, Weight, and Center of Gravity of the Load

      Number of Legs and Angle with the Horizontal
      Rated Capacity of the Sling
      History of Care and Usage
Maintenance of Slings
      Chains
      Wire Rope
      Fiber and Synthetic Ropes
Summary
Other Sources of OSHA Assistance

      Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines
      State Programs
      Consultation Services
      Voluntary Protection Programs
      Training and Education
      Electronic Information
      Emergencies
Related Publications
States with Approved Plans
OSHA Consultation Project Directory
OSHA Area Offices

Introduction


The ability to handle materials-to move them from one location to another, whether during transit or at the worksite-is vital to all segments of industry. Materials must be moved, for example, for industry to manufacture, sell, and utilize products. In short, without materials-handling capability, industry would cease to exist.

To varying degrees, all employees in numerous workplaces take part in materials handling. Consequently, some employees are injured. In fact, the mishandling of materials is the single largest cause of accidents and injuries in the workplace. Most of these accidents and injuries, as well as the pain and loss of salary and productivity that often result, can be readily avoided. Whenever possible, mechanical means should be used to move materials to avoid employee injuries such as muscle pulls, strains, and sprains. In addition, many loads are too heavy andior bulky to be safely moved manually. Various types of equipment, therefore, have been designed specifically to aid in the movement of materials: cranes, derricks, hoists, powered industrial trucks, and conveyors.

Because cranes, derricks, and hoists rely upon slings to hold their suspended loads, slings are the most commonly used materials handling apparatus. This booklet offers information on the proper selection, maintenance, and use of slings.

This booklet is designed to assist sling operators to understand and comply with OSHA's regulation on slings, published on June 27, 1975, in the Federal Register under Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.184.

All employers should be aware that there are certain states (and similar jurisdictions) which operate their own programs under agreement with the U.S. Department of Labor, pursuant to section 18 of the Act. The programs in these jurisdictions may differ in some details from the federal program. (See list of States with Approved Plans listed at the end of this booklet.)

Importance of the Operator

The operator must exercise intelligence, care, and common sense when selecting and using slings. Slings must be selected in accordance with their intended use, based upon the size and type of load, and the environmental conditions of the workplace. All slings must be visually inspected before use to ensure their effectiveness.

A well-trained operator can prolong the service life of equipment and reduce costs by avoiding the potentially hazardous effects of overloading equipment, operating it at excessive speeds, taking up slack with a sudden jerk, and suddenly accelerating or decelerating equipment. The operator can look for causes and seek corrections whenever a danger exists. He or she should cooperate with coworkers and supervisors and become a leader in carrying out safety measures-not merely for the good of the equipment and the production schedule but, more importantly, for the safety of everyone concerned.

Sling Types

The dominant characteristics of a sling are determined by the components of that sling. For example, the strengths and weaknesses of a wire rope sling are essentially the same as the strengths and weaknesses of the wire rope of which it is made.

Slings are generally one of six types: chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural fiber rope, synthetic fiber rope, or synthetic web. In general, use and inspection procedures tend to place these slings into three groups: chain, wire rope and mesh, and fiber rope web. Each type has its own particular advantages and disadvantages. Factors to consider when choosing the best sling for the job include the size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity of the material to be moved, as well as the environmental conditions under which the sling will be used.

Chains

Chains are commonly used because of their strength and ability to adapt to the shape of the load. Care should be taken, however, when using alloy chain slings because sudden shocks will damage them. Misuse of chain slings could damage the sling, resulting in sling failure and possible injury to an employee.

Chain slings are the best choice for lifting very hot materials. They can be heated to temperatures of up to 1,000° Fahrenheit (538° centigrade); however, when alloy chain slings are consistently exposed to service temperatures in excess of 600° Fahrenheit (3 16° centigrade), operators must reduce the working load limits in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

All sling types must be visually inspected prior to use. When inspecting alloy steel chain slings, pay special attention to any stretching, wear in excess of the allowances made by the manufacturer, and nicks and gouges. These signs indicate that the sling may be unsafe and they must be removed from service.

Wire Rope

A second type of sling is made of wire rope. Wire rope is composed of individual wires that have been twisted to form strands. Strands are then twisted to form a wire rope. When wire rope has a fiber core, it is usually more flexible but is less resistant to environmental damage. Conversely, a core that is made of a wire rope strand tends to have greater strength and is more resistant to heat damage.

Wire rope may be further defined by the "lay." The lay of a wire rope describes the direction the wires and strands are twisted during the construction of the rope. Most wire rope is right lay, regular lay-which means that the strands pass from left to right across the rope and the wires in the rope are laid opposite in direction to the lay of the strands. This type of rope has the widest range of applications.

Lang lay (where the wires are twisted in the same direction as the strands) is recommended for many excavating, construction, and mining applications, including draglines, hoist lines, dredgelines, and other similar lines.

Lang lay ropes are more flexible and have greater wearing surface per wire than regular lay ropes. In addition, since the outside wires in lang lay rope lie at an angle to the rope axis, internal stress due to bending over sheaves and drums is reduced causing lang lay ropes to be more resistant to bending fatigue.

A left lay rope is one in which the strands form a left-hand helix similar to the threads of a left-hand screw thread. Left lay rope has its greatest usage in oil fields on rod and tubing lines, blast hole rigs, and spudders where rotation of right lay would loosen couplings. The rotation of a left lay rope tightens a standard coupling.

Wire Rope Sling Selection. When selecting a wire rope sling to give the best service, there are four characteristics to consider: strength, ability to bend without distortion, ability to withstand abrasive wear, and ability to withstand abuse.

1. Strength-The strength of a wire rope is a function of its size, grade, and construction. It must be sufficient to accommodate the applied maximum load. The maximum load limit is determined by means of an appropriate multiplier. This multiplier is the number by which the ultimate strength of a wire rope is divided to determine the working load limit. Thus, a wire rope sling with a strength of 10,000 pounds (4,545 kilograms) and a total working load of 2,000 pounds (909 kilograms) has a design factor (multiplier) of 5. New wire rope slings have a design factor of 5. As a sling suffers from the rigors of continued service, however, both the design factor and the sling's ultimate strength are proportionately reduced. If a sling is loaded beyond its ultimate strength, it will fail. So, older slings must be more rigorously inspected to ensure that rope conditions adversely affecting the strength of the sling are considered in determining if a wire rope sling should be allowed to continue in service.

2. Fatigue (Bending without Failure)-A wire rope must have the ability to withstand repeated bending without the wires failing from fatigue. Fatigue failure of the wires in a wire rope is the result of the development of small cracks from repeated applications of bending loads. It occurs when ropes make small radius bends. The best means of preventing fatigue failure of wire rope slings is to use blocking or padding to increase the radius of bend.

3. Abrasive Wear-The ability of a wire rope to withstand abrasion is determined by the size, number of wires, and construction of the rope. Smaller wires bend more readily and therefore offer greater flexibility but are less able to withstand abrasive wear. Conversely, the larger wires of less flexible ropes are better able to withstand abrasion than are the smaller wires of more flexible ropes.

4. Abuse-All other factors being equal, misuse or abuse of wire rope will cause a wire rope sling to become unsafe long before any other factor. Abusing a wire rope sling can cause serious structural damage to the wire rope, such as kinking or bird caging, which reduces the strength of the wire rope. (In bird caging, the wire rope strands are forcibly untwisted and become spread outward.) So, to prolong the life of the sling and protect the lives of employees, the manufacturer's suggestion for safe and proper use of wire rope slings must be strictly adhered to.

Wire Rope Life. Many operating conditions affect wire rope life. They are bending, stresses, loading conditions, speed of load application (jerking). abrasion, corrosion, sling design, materials handled, environmental conditions, and history of previous usage.

In addition to the above operating conditions, the weight, size, and shape of the loads to be handled also affect the service life of a wire rope sling. Flexibility also is a factor. Generally, more flexible ropes are selected when smaller radius bending is required. Less flexible ropes should be used when the rope must move through or over abrasive materials.

Wire Rope Sling Inspection. Wire rope slings must be visually inspected before each day's use. The operator should check the twists or lay of the sling. If ten randomly distributed wires in one lay are broken, or five wires in one strand of a rope lay are damaged, the sling must not be used. It is not sufficient, however, to check only the condition of the wire rope. End fittings and other components should also be inspected for any damage that could make the sling unsafe.

To ensure safe slin: usage between scheduled inspections, all workers should participate in a safety awareness program. Each operator should keep a close watch on those slings he or she is using. If any accident involving the movement of materials occurs, the operator should immediately shut down the equipment and report the accident to a supervisor. The cause of the accident should be determined and corrected before resuming operations.

Field Lubrication. Although every rope sling is lubricated when manufactured, it also must be lubricated "in the field" to increase the sling's useful service life. There is no set rule on how much or how often this should be done. It depends on the conditions under which the sling is used. The heavier the loads, the greater the number of bends, or the more adverse the conditions under which the sling operates, the more frequently lubrication is required.

Storage. Wire rope slings should be stored in a well-ventilated, dry building or shed. To avoid corrosion and rust, never store wire rope slings on the ground or allow them to be continuously exposed to the elements. And, if it is necessary to store wire rope slings outside, make sure that they are set off the ground and protected.

Note: Using the sling several times a week, even with light loads, is a good practice. Records show that frequently or continuously used slings give useful service far longer than idle ones.

Discarding Slings. Wire rope slings can provide a margin of safety by showing early signs of failure. The following factors indicate when a wire sling needs to be discarded:
  • Severe corrosion,
  • Localized wear (shiny worn spots) on the outside,
  • A one-third reduction in outer wire diameter,
  • Damage or displacement of end-fittings-hooks, rings, links, or collars-by overload or misapplication,
  • Distortion, kinking, bird caging, or other evidence of damage to the wire rope structure, or
  • Excessive broken wires.
Fiber Rope and Synthetic Web

Fiber rope and synthetic web slings are used primarily for temporary work, such as construction and painting jobs, and in marine operations. They also are the best choice for use on expensive loads, highly finished parts, fragile parts, and delicate equipment.

Fiber Rope Slings. Fiber rope deteriorates on contact with acids and caustics. Fiber ropes slings, therefore, must not be used around these substances unless the manufacturer recommends them for that use.

When inspecting a fiber rope sling, look first at its surface. Look for cuts, gouges, or worn surface areas; dry, brittle, scorched, or discolored fibers; or melting or charring of any part of the sling. If any of these conditions are found, the supervisor must be notified and a determination made regarding the safety of the sling. If the sling is found to be unsafe, it must be discarded.

Next, check the sling's interior. It should be as clean as when the rope was new. A buildup of powderlike sawdust on the inside of the fiber rope indicates excessive internal wear and that the sling is unsafe.

Finally, scratch the fibers with a fingernail. If the fibers separate easily, the fiber sling has suffered some kind of chemical damage and must be discarded.

Synthetic Rope and Web Slings. The most commonly used synthetic web slings are made of nylon, polypropylene, and polyester. They have the following properties in common:
  • Strength--can handle a load of up to 300,000 pounds (1 36,363 kilograms).
  • Convenience-can conform to any shape.
  • Safety-will adjust to the load contour and hold it with a tight, non-slip grip.
  • Load protection-will not mar, deface, or scratch highly polished or delicate surfaces.
  • Long life-are unaffected by mildew, rot, or bacteria; resist some chemical action; and have excellent abrasion resistance.
  • Economy-have a low initial cost plus a long service life.
  • Shock absorbency--can absorb heavy shocks without damage.
  • Temperature resistance-are unaffected by temperatures up to 180" Fahrenheit (82.2" centigrade).
Because each synthetic material has unique properties, it should be used according to the manufacturer's instructions, especially when dealing with chemically active environments.

Possible Defects. Synthetic web slings must be removed from service if any of the following defects exist:
  • Acid or caustic burns,
  • Melting or charring of any part of the surface,
  • Snags, punctures, tears, or cuts,
  • Broken or wom stitches,
  • Wear or elongation exceeding the amount recommended by the manufacturer, or
  • Distortion of fittings.
Safe Lifting Practices

Now that the sling has been selected (based upon the characteristics of the load and the environmental conditions surrounding the lift) and inspected prior to use, the next step is learning how to use it safely. There are four primary factors to consider when safely lifting a load. They are (1) the size, weight, and center of gravity of the load; (2) the number of legs and the angle the sling makes with the horizontal line; (3) the rated capacity of the sling; and (4) the history of the care and usage of the sling.

Size, Weight, and Center of Gravity of the Load

The center of gravity of an object is that point at which the entire weight may be considered as concentrated. To make a level lift, the crane hook must be directly above this point. While slight variations are usually permissible, if the crane hook is too far to one side of the center of gravity, dangerous tilting will result causing unequal stresses in the different sling legs. This imbalance must be compensated for at once.

Number of Legs and Angle with the Horizontal

As the angle formed by the sling leg and the horizontal line decreases, the rated capacity of the sling also decreases. In other words, the smaller the angle between the sling leg and the horizontal, the greater the stress on the sling leg and the smaller (lighter) the load the sling can safely support. Larger (heavier) loads can be safely moved if the weight of the load is distributed among more sling legs.

Rated Capacity of the Sling

The rated capacity of a sling varies depending upon the type of sling, the size of the sling, and the type of hitch. Operators must know the capacity of the sling. Charts or tables that contain this information generally are available from sling manufacturers. The values given are for new slings. Older slings must be used with additional caution. Under no circumstances shall a sling's rated capacity be exceeded.

History of Care and Usage

The mishandling and misuse of slings are the leading cause of sling-related accidents. The majority of injuries and accidents, however, can be avoided by becoming familiar with the essentials of proper sling care and use.

Proper care and use are essential for maximum service and safety. Slings must be protected with cover saddles, burlap padding, or wood blocking as well as from unsafe lifting procedures such as overloading to prevent sharp bends and cutting edges.

Before making a lift, check to be certain that the sling is properly secured around the load and that the weight and balance of the load have been accurately determined. If the load is on the ground, do not allow the load to drag along the ground. This could damage the sling. If the load is already resting on the sling, ensure that there is no sling damage prior to making the lift.

Next, position the hook directly over the load and seat the sling squarely within the hook bowl. This gives the operator maximum lifting efficiency without bending the hook or overstressing the sling.

Wire rope slings also are subject to damage resulting from contact with sharp edges of the loads being lifted. These edges can be blocked or padded to minimize damage to the sling.

After the sling is properly attached to the load, there are a number of good lifting techniques that are common to all slings. First, make sure that the load is not lagged, clamped, or bolted to the floor. Second, guard against shock loading by taking up the slack in the sling slowly. Apply power cautiously to prevent jerking at the beginning of the lift, and slowly accelerate or decelerate. Third, check the tension on the sling. Raise the load a few inches, stop, and check for proper balance and that all items are clear of the path of travel. Never allow anyone to ride on the hood or load. Fourth, keep all personnel clear while the load is being raised, moved, or lowered. Crane or hoist operators should watch the load at all times when it is in motion. Finally, obey the following"nevers." Never allow more than one person to control a lift or give signals to a crane or hoist operator except to warn of a hazardous situation. Never raise the load more than necessary. Never leave the load suspended in the air. And never work under a suspended load or allow anyone else to.

Once the lift has been completed, clean the sling, check it for damage, and store it in a clean, dry airy place. It is best to hang it on a rack or wall.

Remember, damaged slings cannot lift as much weight as new or older well-cared for slings. Proper and safe use and storage of slings will increase their service life.

Maintenance of Slings

Chains


Chain slings must be cleaned prior to each inspection, as dirt or oil may hide damage. The operator must be certain to inspect the total length of the sling, periodically looking for stretching, binding, wear, or nicks and gouges. If a sling has stretched so that it is now more than three percent longer than when it was new, it is unsafe and must be discarded.

Binding is the term used to describe the condition that exists when a sling has become deformed to the extent that its individual links cannot move within each other freely. It indicates that the sling is unsafe. Generally, wear occurs on the load-bearing inside ends of the links. Pushing links together so that the inside surface becomes clearly visible is the best way to check for this type of wear. Wear may also occur, however, on the outside of links when the chain is dragged along abrasive surfaces or pulled out from under heavy loads. Either type of wear weakens slings and makes accidents more likely.

Heavy nicks and/or gouges must be filed smoothly, measured with calipers, and then compared with the manufacturer's minimum allowable safe dimensions. When in doubt, or in borderline situations, do not use the sling. In addition, never attempt to repair the welded components on a sling. If the sling needs repair of this nature, the supervisor must be notified.

Wire Rope

Wire rope slings, like chain slings, must be cleaned prior to each inspection because they are subject to damage hidden by dirt or oil. In addition, they must be lubricated according to manufacturer's instructions. Lubrication prevents or reduces corrosion and wear due to friction and abrasion. Before applying any lubricant, however, the sling user should make certain that the sling is dry. Applying lubricant to a wet or damp sling traps moisture against the metal and hastens corrosion.

Corrosion deteriorates wire rope. It may be indicated by pitting, but it is sometimes hard to detect. If a wire rope sling shows any sign of significant deterioration, that sling must be removed until can be examined by a person who is qualified to determine the extent of the damage.

By following the above guidelines to proper sling use and maintenance, and by the avoidance of kinking, it is possible to greatly extend the useful service life of a wire rope sling.

Fiber and Synthetic Ropes

Fiber ropes and synthetic webs are generally discarded rather than serviced or repaired. Operators must always follow the manufacturer's recommendations.

Summary

There are good practices to follow to protect yourself while using slings to move materials. First, accept the responsibility for your own actions. Become a competent and careful employee. Your own life or that of your fellow workers or others may depend on it. Second, learn as much as you can about the materials with which you will be working. Slings come in many different types, one of which is right for your purpose. Third, analyze the load to be moved-in terms of size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity then choose the sling which best meets those needs. Fourth, always inspect all the equipment before and after a move. Always be sure to give equipment whatever "in service" maintenance it may need. Fifth, use safe lifting practices. Use the proper lifting technique for the type of sling and the type of load.

Other Sources of OSHA Assistance

Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines


Effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses and their related costs. To assist employers and employees in developing effective safety and health programs, OSHA published Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines in the January 26, 1989, Federal Register (54 FR 3908-3916). These voluntary guidelines apply to all places of employment covered by OSHA.

The guidelines identify four general elements that are critical to the development of a successful safety and health management program:
  • Management commitment and employee involvement,
  • Worksite analysis,
  • Hazard prevention and control, and
  • Safety and health training.
The guidelines recommend specific actions under each of these general elements. A single free copy of the Guidelines can be obtained from the OSHA Publications Office, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535 by sending a self-addressed label with your request.

State Programs

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health plans. States with plans approved under section 18(b) of the Act must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements. There are currently 25 state plan states: 23 covering private and public (state and local government) sectors and two covering public sector only. Plan states must adopt standards comparable to the federal within 6 months of a federal standard's promulgation. Until such time as a state standard is promulgated, federal OSHA provides interim enforcement assistance, as appropriate, in these states.

A listing of the state plan state designees appears at the end of this booklet.

Consultation Services

Free onsite safety and health consultation services are available to employers in all states who want help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful workplace. The service is largely funded by OSHA. Primarily developed for smaller employers with more hazardous operations, the consultation service is delivered by state governments employing professional safety consultants and health consultants. Comprehensive assistance includes an appraisal of all mechanical systems, physical work practices, and environmental hazards of the workplace and all aspects of the employer's present job safety and health program.

This program is completely separate from the OSHA inspection efforts. No penalties are proposed or citations issued for any safety or health problems identified by the consultant. The service is confidential.

For more information concerning consultation services, see the list of consultation projects listed at the end of this booklet.

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs)

The Voluntary Protection Programs are designed to recognize and promote effective safety and health program management. In the VPP, management, labor, and OSHA establish cooperative relationships at workplaces that have implemented strong programs.

Sites approved for VPP's Star. Merit. and Demonstration programs have met. and must continue to meet. rigorous participation standards. Benefits of VPP participation include improved employee motivation to work safely, leading to better quality and productivity: lost workday case rates that generally are 60 to 80 percent below industry averages; reduced workers' compensation and other injury and illness-related costs: positive community recognition and interaction: further improvement and revitalization of already good safety and health programs: and partnership with OSHA.

For additional information about the VPP, contact the VPP Manager in your OSHA Regional Office. listed at the end of this booklet.

Training and Education

OSHA's area offices offer a variety of information services, such as publications. audiovisual aids, technical advice. and speakers special engagements. OSHA's Training Institute in Des Plaines, IL, provides basic and advanced courses in safety and health for federal and state compliance officers, state consultants, federal azency personnel, and private sector employers, employees, and their representatives.

OSHA also provides funds to nonprofit organizations. through grants, to conduct workplace training and education in subjects where OSHA believes there is a lack of workplace training. Grants are awarded annually. Grant recipients are expected to contribute 20 percent of the total grant cost.

For more information on grants, training and education, contact the OSHA Training Institute, Office of Training and Education, 1555 Times Drive. Des Plaines, IL 60018, (847) 297-4810. For further information on any OSHA propm. contact your nearest OSHA area or regional office listed at the end of this booklet.

Electronic Information

Labor News Bulletin Board - OSHA news releases, recent Federal Rzgister notices, fact sheets, and other information are available by modem by dialing (202) 219-4784. Callers should set the modem at 300, 1,200, 2,400, 9,600, or 14,400 BAUD; Parity: None; Data Bits=8; Stop Bit=l. Voice phone (202) 219-8831.

Internet - OSHA standards, interpretations, directives, and
additional information are now on the World Wide Web at http:// www.osha.gov/ and http://www.osha.gov.

CD-ROM - A wide variety of OSHA materials including standards, interpretations, directives, and more can be purchased on CD-ROM from the Government Printing Office. To order, write to Superintendent of Documents. P.O. Box 371953. Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. Specify OSHA Regulations. Documents and Technical Information on CD-ROM, (ORDT), SIN 729-013-00000-5. The price is S88 per year ($1 10.00 foreign); single copy $30.00 ($37.50 foreign).

OSHA FAX - OSHA news releases, fact sheets, and other short documents are available by fax for a nominal charge of $1 .50 per minute. Callers should dial (900) 555-3400 to access this service.

Emergencies

To report life-threatening situations, catastrophes, or fatalities, call (800) 321-OSHA. Complaints will go immediately to the nearest OSHA area or state office for help.

For further information on any OSHA propam, contact your nearest OSHA area or regional office listed at the end of this booklet.

Related Publications

Single, free copies of the following items can be obtained from the OSHA Publications, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535, (202) 219-4667, (202) 219-9266 (fax), or from the nearest OSHA regional or area offices listed at the end of this booklet. Please send a self-addressed label with your request.
Asbestos Standard for Construction - OSHA 3096
All About OSHA - OSHA 2056
Access to Medical and Exposure Records - OSHA 3 1 10
Chemical Hazard Communication - OSHA 3084
Concrete and Masonry Construction - OSHA 3 106
Crane or Derrick Suspended Personnel Platforms - OSHA 3 100
Employee Workplace Rights - OSHA 3021
Fall Protection (Construction) - OSHA 3 146
Ground-Fault Protection on Construction Sites - OSHA 3007
How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies - OSHA 3088
Lead in Construction - OSHA 3 142
Occupational Exposure to Cadmium in the Construction Industry - OSHA 3 139
OSHA Inspections - OSHA 2098
OSHA Poster - OSHA 2203
OSHA Publications and Audiovisual Programs - OSHA 201 9
Permit-Required Confined Spaces - OSHA 3 138
Personal Protective Equipment - OSHA 3077
The following items can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402, (202) 5 12-1800; (202) 512-2250 (fax).
Construction Industry Digest - OSHA 2202
Order No. 029-016-0015 1-4. Cost $2.25.
Hazard Communication-A Compliance Kit - OSHA 3 104
Order No. 029-016-00127-1. Cost $18.00 (Foreign $22.50)
Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance -
OSEA 3!!!
Order No. 029-01 6-00127- 1. Cost $1.00.
Job Safety & Health Quarterly Magazine
Order No. JSH. Cost $7.00 (Foreign $8.75)
Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training
Guidelines - OSHA 2254
Order No. 029-01 6-001 37-9. Cost $4.25

States with Approved Plans

Albany. NY ........................................................... (518) 457-2741
Baltimore. MD ...................................................... (410) 333-4179
Carson City. NV ................................................... (702) 687-3032
Cheyenne. WY ..................................................... (307) 777-7786
Des Moines. IA ..................................................... (515) 281-3447
Frankfort. KY ....................................................... (502) 564-3070
Hato Rey. PR ........................................................ (809) 754-21 19
Honolulu. HI ......................................................... (808) 586-8844
Indianapolis. IN .................................................... (317) 232-2378
Juneau. AK ............................................................ (907)465-2700
Lansing. MI .......................................................... (517) 335-8022
Lansing. MI .......................................................... (517) 373-9600
Montpelier. VT ..................................................... (802) 828-2288
Nashville. TN ....................................................... (615) 741-2582
Olympia. WA ....................................................... (360) 902-4200
Phoenix. AZ .......................................................... (602) 542-5795
Raleigh. NC .......................................................... (919) 662-4585
Richmond. VA ...................................................... (804) 786-2377
Salem. OR ............................................................. (503) 378-3272
Salt Lake City. UT ................................................ (801) 530-6898
San Francisco. CA ............................................... (415) 972-8835
Santa Fe. NM ........................................................ (505) 827-2850
St . Croix. VI ......................................................... (809) 773-1994
St. Paul. MN ......................................................... (612) 296-2342
Wethersfield. CT .................................................(203) 566-5123



OSHA Consultation Project Directory

State                                                                     Telephone

Alabama ............................................................. (205) 348-3033
Alaska ................................................................ (907) 269-4954
Arizona ............................................................... (602) 542-5795
Arkansas ............................................................ (501) 682-4522
California ............................................................ (415) 972-8155
Colorado ............................................................ (970) 491-6151
Connecticut ........................................................ (860) 566-4550
Delaware ............................................................ (302) 577-3908
District of Columbia ............................................ (202) 576-6339
Florida ................................................................ (904) 488-3044
Georgia ............................................................... (404) 894-2643
Guam. . . ............................................................. (671) 475-0136
Hawall ................................................................ (808) 586-9100
Idaho .................................................................. (208) 385-3283
Illinois ................................................................. (312) 814-2337
Indiana ............................................................... (317) 232-2688
Iowa .................................................................. (515) 281-5352
Kansas ................................................................ (913) 296-7476
Kentucky ............................................................ (502) 564-6896
Louisiana ........................................................... (504) 342-960 1
Maine ................................................................ (207) 624-6460
Maryland ............................................................ (410) 333-4210
Massachusetts .................................................... (617) 727-3982
Michigan .................................................... (517) 335-8250(H)
.................................................................... (517) 322- 1809(S)
Minnesota ...................................................... (612) 297-5433
Mississippi ......................................................... (601) 987-3981
Missouri ............................................................. (314) 751-3403
Montana ............................................................. (406) 444-6418
Nebraska ............................................................ (402) 471-4717
Nevada ............................................................... (702) 486-5016
New Hampshire ................................................. (603) 271-2024
New Jersey ......................................................... (609) 292-3923
New Mexico ...................................................... (505) 827-2877
New York .......................................................... (514) 857-248 l
North Carolina ................................................... (919) 662-4644
North Dakota ..................................................... (701) 328-5188
Ohio .................................................................. (614) 644-2246
Oklahoma .......................................................... (405) 528-1500
Oregon ............................................................... (503) 378-3272
Pennsylvania ...................................................... (412) 357-2561
Puerto Rico ........................................................ (809) 754-2188
Rhode Island ...................................................... (401) 277-2438
South Carolina ................................................... (803) 734-9599
South Dakota ..................................................... (605) 688-4101
Tennessee .......................................................... (615) 741-7036
Texas .................................................................. (512) 440-3834
Utah ................................................................... (801) 530-6868
Vermont ............................................................. (802) 828-2765
Virginia .............................................................. (804) 786-6613
Virgin Islands ..................................................... (809) 772- 1315
Washington ....................................................... (360) 902-5554
West Virginla ..................................................... (304) 558-7890
Wisconsin ..................................................... (608) 266-8579(H)
...................................................................... (414) 521-5188(S)
Wyoming ........................................................... (307) 777-7786
(H) Health
(S) Safety



OSHA Area Offices

Area                                                                     Telephone
Albany NY ........................................................ (518) 464-6742
Albuquerque NM .............................................. (505) 248-5302
Allentown PA ................................................... (610) 776-0592
Anchorage AK .................................................. (907) 271-5152
Appleton WI ..................................................... (414) 734-4521
Augusta . ME ...................................................... (207) 622-8117
Austin. TX ......................................................... (512) 482-5783
Avenel NJ ......................................................... (908) 750-3270
Baltimore MD ................................................... (110) 962-2810
Bangor ME ....................................................... (207) 941 -8177
Baton Rouge LA ............................................... (504) 389-0473
Bayside NY ...................................................... (718) 279-9060
Bellevue WA ................................................... (206) 553-7520
Billings MT ...................................................... (406) 657-6649
Birmingham AL ................................................ (705) 731-1534
Bismarck ND ................................................... (701) 250-4521
Boise ID ......................................................... (708) 334-1867
Bowmansville KY ............................................ (716) 684-3891
Brainuee MA .................................................... (617) 565-6924
Bridgeport CT ................................................... (307) 579-5581
Calumet City IL ................................................ (708) 891-3800
Carson City NV ................................................ (702) 885-6963
Charleston WV ............................................... (304) 347-5937
Cincinnati OH ................................................... (513) 811-4132
Cleveland OH .................................................. (216) 522-3818
Columbia SC ................................................... (803) 765-5904
Columbus OH ................................................... (614) 469-5582
Concord NH ...................................................... (603) 225-1629
Corpus Christi TX ............................................. (512) 888-3420
Dallas TX .......................................................... (214) 320-2400
Denver CO ........................................................ (303) 844-5385
Des Plaines IL ................................................... (847) 803-3800
Des Moines IA .................................................. (515) 284-4794
Englevood CO ................................................. (303) 843-4500
Erie PA ............................................................(814) 833-5758
Fort Lauderdale . FL .......................................... (305) 424-0242
Fort Worth . TX .................................................. (817) 885-7025
Frankfort KY .................................................. (502) 227-7024
Harrisburg PA ................................................... (717) 782-3901
Hartford CT ...................................................... (203) 240-3152
Hasbrouck Heights NJ ...................................... (201) 288-1700
Hato Rey PR .................................................... (809) 766-5457
Honolulu HI ......................................................(808) 541-2685
Houston TX ...................................................... (713) 286-0583
Houston. TX ......................................................(713) 591-2438
Indianapolis IN ................................................. (317) 226-7290
Jackson MS ................................................... (601) 965-4606
Jacksonville FL ................................................ (904) 232-2895
Kansas City MO .............................................. (816) 483-9531
Lansing MI ....................................................... (517) 377-1892
Little Rock AR ................................................ (501) 324-6291
Lubbock TX ...................................................... (806) 743-7681
Madison WI ......................................................(608) 264-5388
Marlton NJ ........................................................ (609) 757-5181
Methuen MA ....................................................(617) 565-8110
Milwaukee WI .................................................. (411) 297-3315
blinneapolis MN ............................................... (61 2) 338-1994
Mobile AL ...................................................... (334) 431-6131
Xashville TN .................................................... (615) 781-5423
New York NY ................................................. (212) 264-9840
Norfolk VA ....................................................... (804) 441-3820
Nonh Aurora IL ................................................(708) 896-8700
Oklahoma City OK ........................................... (405) 231-5351
Omaha NE ........................................................ (402) 221-3182
Parsippany NJ ................................................... (201) 263-1003
Peoria IL ......................................................... (309) 671-7033
Philadelphia. PA ................................................ (215) 597-4955
Phoenix AZ ...................................................... (602) 640-2007
Pittsbursh PA .................................................... (412) 644-2903
Portland OR ..................................................... (503) 326-2251
Providence RI ................................................... (401) 528-4669
Raleigh KC ....................................................... (919) 856-4770
Salt Lake City UT ............................................. (801) 524-5080
San Francisco CA ............................................. (415) 744-7120
Savannah GA .................................................... (912) 652-4393
Smyrna GA ....................................................... (404) 984-8700
Springfield MA ................................................. (413) 785-0123
St. Louis MO .................................................... (314) 425-4249
Syracuse KY ..................................................... (315) 451-0808
Tampa FL ......................................................... (813) 626-1177
Tarrytown NY .................................................. (914) 524-7510
Toledo OH ........................................................ (419) 259-7542
Tucker GA ........................................................ (404) 493-6644
Westbury NY .................................................. (516) 334-3344
Wichita KS ...................................................... (316) 269-6644
Wilkes Barre PA .............................................. (717) 826-6538



U.S. Department of Labor
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Regional Offices


Region I
(CT,* MA, ME, NH, RI, VT*)
133 Portland Street 525
1st Floor
Boston, MA 02114
Telephone: (617) 565-7164

Region II
(NJ, NY;* PR,* VI*)
201 Varick Street
Room 670
New York. NY 10014
Telephone: (212) 337-2378

Region III
(DC, DE, MD;* PA, VA,* WV)
Gateway Building. Suite 2100
3535 Market Street
Philadelphia. PA 19104
Telephone: (215) 596- 1201

Region IV
(AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC,SC,* TN*)
1375 Peachtree Street N.E.
Suite 587
Atlanta, GA 30367
Telephone: (404) 347-3573

Region V
(IL, IN;* MI;* MN;" OH, WI)
230 South Dearbom Street
Room 3244
Chicago, IL 60604
Telephone: (312) 353-2220

Region VI
(AR, LA, NM," OK, TX)
Griffin Street
Room 602 Dallas, TX 75202
Telephone: (214) 767-4731

Region VII
(IA;* KS, MO, NE)
City Center Square
1100 Main Street, Suite 800
Kansas City, MO 64105
Telephone: (816) 426-5861

Region VIII

(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,* WY*)
Suite 1690
1999 Broadway
Denver CO 80202-5716
Telephone: (303) 391-5858

Region IX
(American Samoa, AZ;* CA,* Guam, HI,* NV,* Trust Territories of the Pacific)
71 Stevenson Street
Room 420
San Francisco, CA 94105
Telephone: (41 5) 744-6670

Region X
(AK;* ID, OR;" WA*)
1111 Third Avenue
Suite 715
Seattle, WA 98101-3212
Telephone: (206) 553-5930

*These states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and
health programs (Connecticut and New York plans cover public employees only).
Statcs with approvcd programs must have a standard that is identical to, or at least
as cffcctive as. the federal standard.