Hollow or enclosed structures are objects on which marine terminal employees work, but that are not large enough for them to enter. These structures are not vented to the atmosphere and may be filled with foam or preservatives to prevent corrosion. Hollow or enclosed structures in marine terminals come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Examples include, but are not limited to, drums, inaccessible voids, pipe stanchions, booms, lampposts, crane pedestals, crane-portal beams, doubler plates, railings, mooring bitts and bollards, vents, and container frames. Requirements for performing hot work on or in tanks or confined spaces, including testing the atmosphere in confined spaces, are in 29 CFR 1917.152.
During hot work on hollow or enclosed structures, employers must take precautions to protect workers from exposure to a range of hazards such as flammable or toxic gases, liquids, or residues; combustible preservatives; saltwater; fuel oils; solvents, degreasers or cleaning chemicals; and high-pressure or vacuum effects due to fluctuating temperatures. However, employers must pay particular attention to these known hazards:
Flammable or explosive atmospheres in hollow or enclosed structures can result from many sources, including:
Prior to starting hot work operations, employers must:
Employers are responsible for providing training and a safe and healthful workplace for their workers.
Note: States with OSHA-approved state plans may have different requirements. See www.osha.gov.
This is one in a series of informational fact sheets highlighting OSHA programs, policies or standards. It does not impose any new compliance requirements. For a comprehensive list of compliance requirements of OSHA standards or regulations, refer to Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations. This information will be made available to sensory-impaired individuals upon request. The voice phone is (202) 693-1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number: (877) 889-5627.
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U.S. Department of Labor
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DSG FS-3732 05/2014
U.S. Department of Labor
1.An NFPA-certified Marine Chemist may perform the tasks assigned to a designated person.
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