OSHA 3114

Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
Cover - Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response

U.S. Department of Labor

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSHA 3114
1997 (Revised)

This informational booklet is intended to provide a generic, non-exhaustive overview of a particular standards-related topic. This publication does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, and the courts.

Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission of the Federal Government. Source credit is requested but not required.

This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.

Voice phone: (202) 219-8615; Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD) message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.

Seal - US Department of Labor
Hazardous Waste Operations
and Emergency Response

U.S. Department of Labor
Alexis M. Herman, Secretary

Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Gregory R. Watchman, Acting Assistant Secretary

OSHA 3114
1997 (Revised)



Scope and Application

Provision of the Standard

Safety and Health Program


Site Evaluation and Control

Site-Specific Safety and Health Plan

Information and Training Program

Personal Protective Equipment Program


Medical Surveillance

Decontamination Procedures

Emergency Response

Other Provisions

Engineering Controls and Work Practices

Handling and Labeling Drums and Containers

Sanitation of Temporary Workplaces


Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)


Other Sources of OSHA Assistance

Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines

State Programs

Consultation Services

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs)

Training and Education

Electronic Infomation


OSHA Related Publications

States with Approved Plans

OSHA Consultation Project Directory

OSHA Area Offices

OSHA Regional Offices


The dumping of hazardous waste poses a significant threat to the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1995 data show that EPA managed about 277 million metric tons of hazardous waste at licensed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites.(1) Hazardous waste is a serious safety and health problem that continues to endanger human and animal life and environmental quality. Hazardous waste -- discarded chemicals that are toxic, flammable or corrosive -- can cause fires, explosions, and pollution of air, water, and land. Unless hazardous waste is properly treated, stored, or disposed of, it will continue to do great harm to all living things that come into contact with it now or in the future.

Because of the seriousness of the safety and health hazards related to hazardous waste operations, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued its Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard, Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1910.120 (See Federal Register 54 (42): 9294-9336, March 6, 1989) to protect workers in this environment and to help them handle hazardous wastes safely and effectively.

State, county, and municipal employees such as police, ambulance workers, and firefighters with local fire departments will be covered by the regulations issued by the 25 states operating their own OSHA-approved safety and health programs (see listing at the end of this booklet). EPA regulations will cover these employees in states without state plans. These regulations will be based on OSHA's standard.

This booklet discusses OSHA's requirements for hazardous waste operations and emergency response at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities and summarizes the steps an employer must take to protect the health and safety of workers in these environments.

Scope and Application

The standard covers workers in cleanup operations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and at EPA-licensed waste TSD facilities; as well as workers responding to emergencies involving hazardous materials (e.g., spills).

Provision of the Standard

Safety and Health Program

An effective and comprehensive safety and health program is essential in reducing work-related injuries and illnesses and in maintaining a safe and healthful work environment. The standard, therefore, requires each employer to develop and implement a written safety and health program that identifies, evaluates, and controls safety and health hazards and provides emergency response procedures for each hazardous waste site or treatment, storage, and disposal facility. This written program must include specific and detailed information on the following topics:
  • An organizational workplan,
  • Site evaluation and control,
  • A site-specific program,
  • Information and training program,
  • Personal protective equipment program,
  • Monitoring,
  • Medical surveillance program,
  • Decontamination procedures, and
  • Emergency response program.
The written safety and health program must be periodically updated and made available to all affected employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The employer also must inform contractors and subcontractors, or their representatives, of any identifiable safety and health hazards or potential fire or explosion hazards before they enter the work site.

Each of the components of the safety and health program is discussed in the following paragraphs.


Planning is the key element in a hazardous waste control program. Proper planning will greatly reduce worker hazards at waste sites. A workplan should support the overall objectives of the control program and provide procedures for implementation and should incorporate the employer's standard operating procedures for safety and health. Establishing a chain of command will specify employer and employee responsibilities in carrying out the safety and health program. For example, the plan should include the following:
  • Supervisor and employee responsibilities and means of communication,
  • Name of person who supervises all of the hazardous waste operations, and
  • The site supervisor with responsibility for and authority to develop and implement the site safety and health program and to verify compliance.
In addition to this organizational structure, the plan should define the tasks and objectives of site operation as well as the logistics and resources required to fulfill these tasks. For example, the following topics should be addressed:
  • The anticipated clean-up and/or operating procedures;
  • A definition of work tasks and objectives and methods of accomplishment;
  • The established personnel requirements for implementing the plan; and
  • Procedures for implementing training, informational programs, and medical surveillance requirements.
Necessary coordination between the general program and site-specific activities also should be included in the actual operations workplan.
Site Evaluation and Control

Site evaluation, both initial and periodic, is crucial to the safety and health of workers. Site evaluation provides employers with the information needed to identify site hazards so they can select appropriate protection methods for employees.

It is extremely important, and a requirement of the standard, that a trained person conduct a preliminary evaluation of an uncontrolled hazardous waste site before entering the site. The evaluation must include all suspected conditions that are immediately dangerous to life or health or that may cause serious harm to employees (e.g., confined space entry, potentially explosive or flammable situations, visible vapor clouds, etc.). As available, the evaluation must include the location and size of the site, site topography, site accessibility by air and roads, pathways for hazardous substances to disperse, a description of worker duties, and the time needed to perform a given task, as well as the present status and capabilities of the emergency response teams.

Periodic reevaluations should also be conducted for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, as conditions or operations change.

Controlling the activities of workers and the movement of equipment is an important aspect of the overall safety and health program. Effective control of the site will minimize potential contamination of workers, protect the public from hazards, and prevent vandalism. The following information is useful in implementing the site control program: a site map, site work zones, site communication, safe work practices, and the name, location and phone number of the nearest medical assistance.

The use of a "buddy system" also is required as a protective measure to assist in the rescue of an employee who becomes unconscious, trapped, or seriously disabled on site. In the buddy system, two employees must keep an eye on each other and only one should be in a specific dangerous area at one time, so that if one gets in trouble, the second can call for help.

Site-Specific Safety and Health Plan

A site-specific safety and health plan is a complementary program element that aids in eliminating or effectively controlling anticipated safety and health hazards. The site-specific plan must include all of the basic requirements of the overall safety and health program, but with attention to those characteristics unique to the particular site. For example, the site-specific plan may outline procedures for confined space entry, air and personal monitoring and environmental sampling, and a spill containment program to address the particular hazards present at the site.

The site safety and health plan must identify the hazards of each phase of the specific site operation and must be kept at the work site. Pre-entry briefings must be conducted prior to site entry and at other times as necessary to ensure that employees are aware of the site safety and health plan and its implementation. The employer also must ensure that periodic safety and health inspections are made of the site and that all known deficiencies are corrected prior to work at the site.

Information and Training Program

As part of the safety and health program, employers are required to develop and implement a program to inform workers (including contractors and subcontractors) performing hazardous waste operations of the level and degree of exposure they are likely to encounter.

Employers also are required to develop and implement procedures for introducing effective new technologies that provide improved worker protection in hazardous waste operations. Examples include foams, absorbents, adsorbents, and neutralizers.

Training makes workers aware of the potential hazards they may encounter and provides the necessary knowledge and skills to perform their work with minimal risk to their safety and health. The employer must develop a training program for all employees exposed to safety and health hazards during hazardous waste operations. Both supervisors and workers must be trained to recognize hazards and to prevent them; to select, care for and use respirators properly as well as other types of personal protective equipment; to understand engineering controls and their use; to use proper decontamination procedures; to understand the emergency response plan, medical surveillance requirements, confined space entry procedures, spill containment program, and any appropriate work practices. Workers also must know the names of personnel and their alternates responsible for site safety and health. The amount of instruction differs with the nature of the work operations, as indicated in Tables 1 and 2.

Employees at all sites must not perform any hazardous waste operations unless they have been trained to the level required by their job function and responsibility and have been certified by their instructor as having completed the necessary training. All emergency responders must receive refresher training, suffcient to maintain or demonstrate competency, annually. Employee training requirements are further defined by the nature of the work (e.g., temporary emergency response personnel, firefighters, safety officers, HAZMAT personnel, and incident commanders). These requirements may include recognizing and knowing the hazardous materials and their risks, knowing how to select and use appropriate personal protective equipment, and knowing the appropriate control, containment, or confinement procedures and how to implement them. The specific training and competency requirements for each personnel category are explained fully in the final rule (FR54 42:9294, March 6, 1989). For a brief summary of training requirements, see Tables 1 and 2.

[Table - Training Requirements]
[Table - Training Requirements]
Employees who receive the training specified (see Table 1) must receive a written certificate upon successful completion of that training. That training need not be repeated if the employee goes to work at a new site; however, the employee must receive whatever additional training is needed to work safely at the new site. Employees who worked at hazardous waste sites before 1987 and received equivalent training need not repeat the initial training specified in Table 1, if the employer can demonstrate that in writing and certify that the employee has received such training.
Personal Protective Equipment Program

The standard further requires the employer to develop a written personal protective equipment program for all employees involved in hazardous waste operations. As mentioned earlier, this program also is part of the site-specific safety and health program. The personal protective equipment program must include an explanation of equipment selection and use, maintenance and storage, decontamination and disposal, training and proper fit, donning and doffing procedures, inspection, in-use monitoring, program evaluation, and equipment limitations.

The employer also must provide and require the use of personal protective equipment where engineering control methods are infeasible to reduce worker exposures at or below the permissible exposure limit. Personal protective equipment must be selected that is appropriate to the requirements and limitations of the site, the task-specific conditions and duration, and the hazards and potential hazards identified at the site. As necessary, the employer must furnish the employee with positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or positive-pressure air-line respirators equipped with an escape air supply, and with totally encapsulating chemical protective suits.

Monitoring Airborne contaminants can present a significant threat to employee safety and health, thus making air monitoring an important component of an effective safety and health program. The employer must conduct monitoring before site entry at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites to identify conditions immediately dangerous to life and health, such as oxygen-deficient atmospheres and areas where toxic substance exposures are above permissible limits. Accurate information on the identification and quantification of airborne contaminants is useful for the following:
  • Selecting personal protective equipment,
  • Delineating areas where protection and controls are needed,
  • Assessing the potential health effects of exposure, and
  • Determining the need for specific medical monitoring.
After a hazardous waste cleanup operation begins, the employer must periodically monitor those employees who are likely to have higher exposures to determine if they have been exposed to hazardous substances in excess of permissible exposure limits. The employer also must monitor for any potential condition that is immediately dangerous to life and health or for higher exposures that may occur as a result of new work operations.
Medical Surveillance

A medical surveillance program will help to assess and monitor the health and fitness of employees working with hazardous substances. The employer must establish a medical surveillance program for the following:
  • All employees exposed or potentially exposed to hazardous substances or health hazards above permissible exposure limits for more than 30 days per year;
  • Workers exposed above the published exposure levels (if there is no permissible exposure limit for these substances) for 30 days or more a year;
  • Workers who wear approved respirators for 30 or more days per year on site;
  • Workers who are exposed to unexpected or emergency releases of hazardous wastes above exposure limits (without wearing appropriate protective equipment) or who show signs, symptoms, or illness that may have resulted from exposure to hazardous substances; and
  • Members of hazardous materials (HAZMAT) teams.
All examinations must be performed under the supervision of a licensed physician, without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place. Examinations must include a medical and work history with special emphasis on symptoms related to the handling of hazardous substances and health hazards and to fitness for duty including the ability to wear any required personal protective equipment under conditions that may be expected at the work site. These examinations must be given as follows:
  • Prior to job assignment and annually thereafter (or every 2 years if a physician determines that is sufficient),
  • At the termination of employment,(2)
  • Before reassignment to an area where medical examinations are not required, (2)
  • If the examining physician believes that a periodic followup is medically necessary, and
  • As soon as possible for employees injured or becoming ill from exposure to hazardous substances during an emergency, or who develop signs or symptoms of overexposure from hazardous substances.
The employer must give the examining physician a copy of the standard and its appendices, a description of the employee's duties relating to his or her exposure, the exposure level or anticipated exposure level, a description of any personal protective and respiratory equipment used or to be used, and any information from previous medical examinations. The employer must obtain a written opinion from the physician that contains the results of the medical examination and any detected medical conditions that would place the employee at an increased risk from exposure, any recommended limitations on the employee or upon the use of personal protective equipment, and a statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the medical examination. The physician is not to reveal, in the written opinion given to the employer, specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to employment.
Decontamination Procedures

Decontamination procedures are a component of the site-specific safety and health plan and, consequently, must be developed, communicated to employees, and implemented before workers enter a hazardous waste site. As necessary, the site safety and health officer must require and monitor decontamination of the employee or decontamination and disposal of the employee's clothing and equipment, as well as the solvents used for decontamination, before the employee leaves the work area. If an employee's non-impermeable clothing becomes grossly contaminated with hazardous substances, the employee must immediately remove that clothing and take a shower. Impermeable protective clothing must be decontaminated before being removed by the employee.

Protective clothing and equipment must be decontaminated, cleaned, laundered, maintained, or replaced to retain effectiveness. The employer must inform any person who launders or cleans such clothing or equipment of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to hazardous substances.

Employees who are required to shower must be provided showers and change rooms that meet the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.141, Subpart J -- General Environmental Controls. In addition, unauthorized employees must not remove their protective clothing or equipment from change rooms unless authorized to do so.

Emergency Response

Proper emergency planning and response are important elements of the safety and health program that help minimize employee exposure and injury. The standard requires that the employer develop and implement a written emergency response plan to handle possible emergencies before performing hazardous waste operations. The plan must include, at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and at treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, the following elements:(3)
  • Personnel roles, lines of authority, and communication procedures,
  • Pre-emergency planning,
  • Emergency recognition and prevention,
  • Emergency medical and first-aid treatment,
  • Methods or procedures for alerting onsite employees,
  • Safe distances and places of refuge,
  • Site security and control,
  • Decontamination procedures,
  • Critique of response and followup,
  • Personal protective and emergency equipment, and
  • Evacuation routes and procedures.
In addition to the above requirements, the plan must include site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions; and procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal government agencies.

The procedures must be compatible with and integrated into the disaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of the site's nearest local, state, and federal agencies. Emergency response organizations may use the local or state emergency response plans, or both, as part of their emergency response plan to avoid duplication of federal regulations.

The plan requirements also must be rehearsed regularly, reviewed periodically, and amended, as necessary, to keep them current with new or changing site conditions or information. A distinguishable and distinct alarm system must be in operation to notify employees of emergencies. The emergency plan also must be made available for inspection and copying by employees, their representatives, OSHA personnel, and other governmental agencies with relevant responsibilities.

When deemed necessary, employees must wear positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus and approved self-contained compressed-air breathing apparatus with approved cylinders. In addition, back-up and first-aid support personnel must be available for assistance or rescue.

Other Provisions

As already indicated, as part of an effective safety and health program, the employer must institute control methods and work practices that are appropriate to the specific characteristics of the site. Such controls are essential to successful worker protection. Some control methods are described in the following paragraphs.
Engineering Controls and Work Practices

To the extent feasible, the employer must institute engineering controls and work practices to help reduce and maintain employee exposure at or below permissible exposure limits. To the extent not feasible, engineering and work practice controls may be supplemented with personal protective equipment. Examples of suitable and feasible engineering controls include the use or pressurized cabs or control booths on equipment, and/or remotely operated materials handling equipment. Examples of safe work practices include removing all non-essential employees from potential exposure while opening drums, wetting down dusty operations, and placing employees upwind of potential hazards.

Handling and Labeling Drums and Containers

Prior to handling a drum or container, the employer must assure that drums or containers meet the required OSHA, EPA (40 CFR Parts 264-265 and 300), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations (49 CFR Parts 171-178), and are properly inspected and labeled. Damaged drums or containers must be emptied of their contents, using a device classified for the material being transferred, and must be properly discarded. In areas where spills, leaks or ruptures occur, the employer must furnish employees with salvage drums or containers, a suitable quantity of absorbent material, and approved fire-extinguishing equipment in the event of small fires. The employer also must inform employees of the appropriate hazard warnings of labeled drums, the removal of soil or coverings, and the dangers of handling unlabeled drums or containers without prior identification of their contents. To the extent feasible, the moving of drums or containers must be kept to a minimum, and a program must be implemented to contain and isolate hazardous substances being transferred into drums or containers. In addition, an approved EPA ground-penetrating device must be used to determine the location and depth of any improperly discarded drums or containers.

The employer also must ensure that safe work practices are instituted before opening a drum or container. For example, air-line respirators and approved electrical equipment must be protected from possible contamination, and all equipment must be kept behind any existing explosion barrier.(4)

Only tools or equipment that prevent ignition shall be used. All employees not performing the operation shall be located at a safe distance and behind a suitable barrier to protect them from accidental explosions. In addition, standing on or working from drums or containers is prohibited. Special care also must be given when an employee handles containers of shock-sensitive waste, explosive materials, or laboratory waste packs. Where an emergency exists, the employer must ensure the following:
  • Evacuate non-essential employees from the transfer area;
  • Protect equipment operators from exploding containers by using a barrier, and
  • Make available a continuous means of communication (e.g., suitable radios or telephones), and a distinguishable and distinct alarm system to signal the beginning and end of activities where explosive wastes are handled.
If drums or containers bulge or swell or show crystalline material on the outside, they must not be moved onto or from the site unless appropriate containment procedures have been implemented. In addition, lab packs must be opened only when necessary and only by a qualified person. Prior to shipment to a licensed disposal facility, all drums or containers must be properly labeled and packaged for shipment. Staging areas also must be kept to a minimum and provided with adequate access and egress routes.
Sanitation of Temporary Workplaces

Each temporary worksite must have a supply of potable water that is stored in tightly closed and clearly labelled containers and equipped with a tap. Disposable cups and a receptacle for cup disposal also must be provided. The employer also must clearly mark all water outlets that are unsafe for drinking, washing, or cooking. Temporary worksites must be equipped with toilet facilities. If there are no sanitary sewers close to or on the hazardous waste site, the employer must provide the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by local codes:
  • Privies,
  • Chemical toilets,
  • Recirculating toilets, or
  • Combustion toilets.
Heated, well-ventilated, and well-lighted sleeping quarters must be provided for workers who guard the worksite. In addition, washing facilities for all workers must be near the worksite, within controlled work zones,(5) and so equipped to enable employees to remove hazardous substances. The employer also must ensure that food service facilities are licensed.


In 1988, OSHA revised the standard requiring employers to provide employees with information to assist in the management of their own safety and health. The standard, Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records (29 CFR 1910.20), permits direct access to these records by employees exposed to hazardous materials, or by their designated representatives, and by OSHA. The rule applies to, but does not require, medical and exposure records maintained by the employer.

The employer must keep exposure records for 30 years and medical records for at least the duration of employment plus 30 years. Records of employees who have worked for less than 1 year need not be retained after employment, but the employer must provide these records to the employee upon termination of employment. First-aid records of one-time treatment need not be retained for any specified period.

The employer must inform each employee of the existence, location, and availability of these records. Whenever an employer plans to stop doing business and there is no successor employer to receive and maintain these records, the employer must notify employees of their right to access to records at least 3 months before the employer ceases to do business. At the same time, employers also must notify the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Under the hazardous waste standard, at a minimum, medical records must include the following information:
  • Employee's name and social security number
  • Physicians' written opinions,
  • Employee's medical complaints related to exposure to hazardous substances, and
  • Information provided to the treating physician.

Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) requires employers covered by the Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910. 1200) to maintain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) and submit such information to State emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees, and the local fire department. Under this requirement, employers covered by HCS must provide chemical hazard information to both employees and surrounding communities. Consequently, in the case of an emergency response situation to hazardous substances at a site, the local fire department may already be aware of the chemicals present at the site since data may have been provided through MSDSs.

Hazardous wastes, when not handled properly, can pose a significant safety and health risk. OSHA recognizes the need to improve the quality of the hazardous waste work environment and has, therefore, issued this standard. This standard provides employers and employees with the information and training necessary to improve workplace safety and health, thereby greatly reducing the number of injuries and illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous waste.

Other Sources of OSHA Assistance

Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines

Effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses and their related costs. To assist employers and employees in developing effective safety and health programs, OSHA published recommended Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines (Federal Register 54 (18): 3908-3916, January 26, 1989). These voluntary guidelines apply to all places of employment covered by OSHA.

The guidelines identify four general elements that are critical to the development of a successful safety and health management program:

  • management commitment and employee involvement,
  • worksite analysis,
  • hazard prevention and control, and
  • safety and health training.
The guidelines recommend specific actions under each of these general elements to achieve an effective safety and health program. A single free copy of the guidelines can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA Publications, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535, by sending a self-addressed mail label with your request. See also OSHA's Web site (http://www.osha.gov/) for these and other agency items.
State Programs The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health plans. States with plans approved under section 18(b) of the OSH Act must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements. There are currently 25 state plan states: 23 of these states administer plans covering both private and public (state and local government) employees; the other 2 states, Connecticut and New York, cover public employees only. Plan states must adopt standards comparable to federal requirements within 6 months of a federal standard's promulgation. Until such time as a state standard is promulgated, federal OSHA provides interim enforcement assistance, as appropriate, in these states. A listing of approved state plans appears at the end of this publication.
Consultation Services

Consultation assistance is available on request to employers who want help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful workplace. Largely funded by OSHA, the service is provided at no cost to the employer. Primarily developed for smaller employers with more hazardous operations, the consultation service is delivered by state government agencies or universities employing professional safety consultants and health consultants. Comprehensive assistance includes an appraisal of all mechanical physical work practices, and environmental hazards of the workplace and all aspects of the employer's present job safety and health program.

The program is separate from OSHA's inspection efforts. No penalties are proposed or citations issued for any safety or health problems identified by the consultant. The service is confidential.

For more information concerning consultation assistance, see the list of consultation projects at the end of this publication.

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs)

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs) and onsite consultation services, when coupled with an effective enforcement program, expand worker protection to help meet the goals of the OSH Act. The three VPPs -- Star, Merit, and Demonstration -- are designed to recognize outstanding achievement by companies that have successfully incorporated comprehensive safety and health programs into their total management system. They motivate others to achieve excellent safety and health results in the same outstanding way as they establish a cooperative relationship among employers, employees, and OSHA.

For additional information on VPPs and how to apply, contact the OSHA area or regional offices listed at the end of this publication, or visit OSHA's Web site at http://www.osha.gov/

Training and Education

OSHA's area offices offer a variety of informational services, such as publications, audiovisual aids, technical advice, and speakers for special engagements. OSHA's Training Institute in Des Plaines, IL, provides basic and advanced courses in safety and health for federal and state compliance officers, state consultants, federal agency personnel, and private sector employers, employees, and their representatives.

OSHA also provides funds to nonprofit organizations, through grants, to conduct workplace training and education in subjects where OSHA believes there is a lack of workplace training. Grants are awarded annually and grant recipients are expected to contribute 20 percent of the total grant cost.

For more information on grants, training and education, contact the OSHA Training Institute, Office of Training and Education, 1555 Times Drive, Des Plaines, IL 60018, (847) 297-4810; (847) 297-4874 fax.

For further information on any OSHA program, contact your nearest OSHA area or regional office listed at the end of this publication.

Electronic Information Internet -- OSHA standards, interpretations, directives, and additional information are now on the World Wide Web at http://www.osha.gov/

CD-ROM -- A wide variety of OSHA materials including standards, interpretations, directives, and more can be purchased on the OSHA CD-ROM from the Government Printing Office.


For life-threatening situations, call (800) 321-OSHA. Complaints will go immediately to the nearest OSHA area or state office for help.

For further information on any OSHA program, contact your nearest OSHA area or regional office listed at the end of this publication.

OSHA Related Publications

Single, free copies of the following publications can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA Publications, P.O. Box 37535, Washington, DC 20013-7535, (202) 219-4667, (202) 219-9266 (fax), or from the nearest OSHA reigonal or area office listed at the end of this publication. Send a self-addressed mailing label with your request.

Access to Medical and Exposure Records - OSHA 3110 All About OSHA - OSHA 2056 Chemical Hazard Communication - OSHA 3084 Consultation Services for the Employer - OSHA 3047 How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies - OSHA 3088 Materials Handling and Storage - OSHA 2236 Personal Protective Equipment - OSHA 3151 Respiratory Protection - OSHA 3079

The kit and the guidelines are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, (202) 512-1800. The kit order no. is 029-016-00147-6; cost $18.00 (foreign - $22.50). The guidelines order no. is 029-016-00163-8; cost $1.50.

Hazard Communication -- A Compliance Kit - OSHA 3104 (A reference guide to step-by-step requirements for compliance with the OSHA standard.)

Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance - OSHA 3111

Emergency Response Guidebook - U.S. Department of Transportation, Publication No. DOT-P- 5800-4, 1987. (Available from J.J. Keller Customer Service Center, 1-800-327-6868. Price $7.45).

Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities - NIOSH/OSHA/USCG/EPA. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publication No. DHHS (NIOSH) No. 85-115, 1985. (Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402, (202) 512-1820, GPO Order No. 017-033-00419-6, $11.00).

States with Approved Plans

Alaska Department of Labor
1111 West 8th Street Room 306
Juneau, AK 99801
(907) 465-2700

Industrial Commission of Arizona
800 W. Washington
Phoenix, AZ 85007
(602) 542-5795

California Department of Industrial Relations
45 Fremont Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
(415) 972-8835

Connecticut Department of Labor
200 Folly Brook Boulevard
Wethersfield, CT 06109
(860) 566-5123

Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations
830 Punchbowl Street
Honolulu, HI 96813
(808) 586-8844

Indiana Department of Labor
State Office Building
402 West Washington Street Room W195
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 232-2378

Iowa Division of Labor Services
1000 E. Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-3447

Kentucky Labor Cabinet
1047 U.S. Highway, 127 South Suite 2
Frankfort, KY 40601
(502) 564-3070

Maryland Division of Labor and Industry
Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation
1100 N. Eutaw Street, Room 613
Baltimore, MD 21202-2206
(410) 767-2999

Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services
4th Floor, Law Building
P.O. Box 30004
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-7230

Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry
443 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155
(612) 296-2342

Nevada Division of Industrial Relations
400 West King Street
Carson City, NV 89710
(702) 687-3032

New Mexico Environment Department
1190 St. Francis Drive
P.O. Box 26110
Santa Fe, NM 87502
(505) 827-2850

New York Department of Labor
W. Averell Harriman State Office Building -12 Room 500
Albany, NY 12240
(518) 457-2741

North Carolina Department of Labor
319 Chapanoke Road
Raleigh, NC 27603
(919) 662-4585

Department of Consumer and Business Services
Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA)
350 Winter Street, N.E. Room 430
Salem, OR 97310
(503) 378-3272

Puerto Rico Department of Labor and Human Resources
Prudencio Rivera Martinez Building
505 Munoz Rivera Avenue
Hato Rey, PR 00918
(809) 754-2119

South Carolina Department of Labor, Licensing, and Regulation
110 Centerview Drive
P.O. Box 11329
Columbia, SC 29211-1329
(803) 734-9594

Tennessee Department of Labor
Attention: Robert Taylor
710 James Robertson Parkway
Nashville, TN 37243-0659
(615) 741-2582

Industrial Commission of Utah
160 East 300 South, 3rd Floor
P.O. Box 146600
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-6600
(801) 530-6898

Vermont Department of Labor and Industry
National Life Building - Drawer 20
120 State Street
Montpelier, VT 05620
(802) 828-2288

Virgin Islands Department of Labor
2131 Hospital Street Box 890
St. Croix, VI 00820-4666
(809) 773-1994

Virginia Department of Labor and Industry
Powers-Taylor Building
13 South 13th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
(804) 786-2377

Washington Department of Labor and Industries
General Administration Building
P.O. Box 44001
Olympia, WA 98504-4001
(360) 902-4200

Workers' Safety and Compensation Division (WSC)
Wyoming Department of Employment
Herschler Building 2nd Floor East
122 West 25th Street
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-7786

OSHA Consultation Project Directory

State Telephone
Alabama (205) 348-7136
Alaska (907) 269-4957
Arizona (602) 542-5795
Arkansas (501) 682-4532
California (415) 972-8515
Colorado (970) 491-6151
Connecticut (860) 566-4550
Delaware (302) 761-8219
District of Columbia (202) 576-6339
Florida (904) 488-3044
Georgia (404) 894-2646
Guam (671) 475-0136
Hawaii (808) 568-9100
Idaho (208) 385-3283
Illinois (312) 814-2337
Indiana (317) 232-2688
Iowa (515) 965-7162
Kansas (913) 296-7476
Kentucky (502) 564-6895
Louisiana (504) 342-9601
Maine (207) 624-6460
Maryland (410) 880-4970
Massachusetts (617) 727-3982
Michigan (517) 332-1817(H)
     (517) 322-1809(S)
Minnesota (612) 297-2393
Mississippi (601) 987-3981
Missouri (573) 751-3403
Montana (406) 444-6418
Nebraska (402) 471-4717
Nevada (702) 486-5016
New Hampshire (603) 271-2024
New Jersey (609) 292-2424
New Mexico (505) 827-4230
New York (518) 457-2481
North Carolina (919) 662-4644
North Dakota (701) 328-5188
Ohio (614) 644-2246
Oklahoma (405) 528-1500
Oregon (503) 378-3272
Pennsylvania (412) 357-2561
Puerto Rico (787) 754-2188
Rhode Island (401) 277-2438
South Carolina (803) 734-9614
South Dakota (605) 688-4101
Tennessee (615) 741-7036
Texas (512) 440-3809
Utah (801) 530-7606
Vermont (802) 828-2765
Virginia (804) 786-6359
Virgin Islands (809) 772-1315
Washington (360) 902-5638
West Virginia (304) 558-7890
Wisconsin (608) 266-8579(H)
    (414) 521-5063(S)
Wyoming (307) 777-3546

(H) - Health
(S) - Safety

OSHA Area Offices

Area Telephone
Albany, NY (518) 464-4338
Albuquerque, NM (505) 248-5302
Allentown, PA (610) 776-0592
Anchorage, AK (907) 271-5152
Appleton, WI (414) 734-4521
Austin, TX (512) 916-5783
Avenel, NJ (908) 750-3270
Baltimore, MD (410) 962-2840
Bangor, ME (207) 941-8177
Baton Rouge, LA (504) 389-0474
Bayside, NY (718) 279-9060
Bellevue, WA (206) 553-7520
Billings, MT (406) 247-7494
Birmingham, AL (205) 731-1534
Bismarck, ND (701) 250-4521
Boise, ID (208) 334-1867
Bowmansville, NY (716) 684-3891
Braintree, MA (617) 565-6924
Bridgeport, CT (203) 579-5581
Calumet City, IL (708) 891-3800
Carson City, NV (702) 885-6963
Charleston, WV (304) 347-5937
Cincinnati, OH (513) 841-4132
Cleveland, OH (216) 522-3818
Columbia, SC (803) 765-5904
Columbus, OH (614) 469-5582
Concord, NH (603) 225-1629
Corpus Christi, TX (512) 888-3420
Dallas, TX (214) 320-2400
Denver, CO (303) 844-5285
Des Plaines, IL (847) 803-4800
Des Moines, IA (515) 284-4794
Englewood, CO (303) 843-4500
Erie, PA (814) 833-5758
Fort Lauderdale, FL (305) 424-0242
Fort Worth, TX (817) 428-2470
Frankfort, KY (502) 227-7024
Harrisburg, PA (717) 782-3902
Hartford, CT (860) 240-3152
Hasbrouck Heights, NJ (201) 288-1700
Guaynabo, PA (787) 277-1560
Honolulu, HI (808) 541-2685
Houston, TX (281) 286-0583
Houston, TX (281) 591-2438
Indianapolis, IN (317) 226-7290
Jackson, MS (601) 965-4606
Jacksonville, FL (904) 232-2895
Kansas City, MO (816) 483-9531
Lansing, MI (517) 377-1892
Little Rock, AR (501) 324-6291
Lubbock, TX (806) 472-7681
Madison, WI (608) 264-5388
Marlton, NJ (609) 757-5181
Methuen, MA (617) 565-8110
Milwaukee, WI (414) 297-3315
Minneapolis, MN (612) 664-4560
Mobile, AL (334) 441-6131
Nashville, TN (615) 781-5423
New York, NY (212) 466-2482
Norfolk, VA (804) 441-3820
North Aurora, IL (630) 896-8700
Oklahoma City, OK (405) 231-5351
Omaha, NE (402) 221-3182
Parsippany, NJ (201) 263-1003
Peoria, IL (309) 671-7033
Philadelphia, PA (215) 597-4955
Phoenix, AZ (602) 640-2007
Pittsburgh, PA (412) 644-2903
Portland, OR (503) 326-2251
Providence, RI (401) 528-4669
Raleigh, NC (919) 856-4770
Salt Lake City, UT (801) 524-5080
Sacramento, CA (916) 566-7470
San Diego, CA (619) 557-2909
Savannah, GA (912) 652-4393
Smyrna, GA (404) 984-8700
Springfield, MA (413) 785-0123
St. Louis, MO (314) 425-4249
Syracuse, NY (315) 451-0808
Tampa, FL (813) 626-1177
Tarrytown, NY (914) 524-7510
Toledo, OH (419) 259-7542
Tucker, GA (770) 493-6644
Westbury, NY (516) 334-3344
Wichita, KS (316) 269-6644
Wilkes-Barre, PA (717) 826-6538
Wilmington, DE (302) 573-6115

OSHA Regional Offices

Region I
(CT,* MA, ME, NH, RI, VT*)

JFK Federal Building Room E-340
Boston, MA 02203
Telephone: (617) 565-9860

Region II
(NJ, NY,* PR,* VI*)

201 Varick Street Room 670
New York, NY 10014
Telephone: (212) 337-2378

Region III
(DC, DE, MD,* PA, VA,* WV)

Gateway Building, Suite 2100
3535 Market Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Telephone: (215) 596-1201

Region IV
(AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC, SC,* TN*)

Atlanta Federal Center
61 Forsyth Street, S. W., Room 6T50
Atlanta, GA 30303
Telephone: (404) 562-2300

Region V
(IL, IN,* MI,* MN,* OH, WI)

230 South Dearborn Street Room 3244
Chicago, IL 60604
Telephone: (312) 353-2220

Region VI
(AR, LA, NM,* OK, TX)

525 Griffin Street Room 602
Dallas, TX 75202
Telephone: (214) 767-4731

Region VII
(IA,* KS, MO, NE)

City Center Square
1100 Main Street, Suite 800
Kansas City, MO 64105
Telephone: (816) 426-5861

Region VIII
(CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,* WY*)

1999 Broadway, Suite 1690
Denver, CO 80202-5716
Telephone: (303) 844-1600

Region IX
(American Samoa, AZ,* CA,* Guam, HI,* NV,* Trust Territories of the Pacific)

71 Stevenson Street Room 420
San Francisco, CA 94105
Telephone: (415) 975-4310

Region X
(AK,* ID, OR,* WA*)

1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715
Seattle, WA 98101-3212
Telephone: (206) 553-5930

Footnote(1) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, The Hazardous Waste System (Washington, DC, 1995), p. ES-2. (Back to Text)

Footnote(2) If the employee has not had an examination within the last 6 months. (Back to Text)

Footnote(3) Emergency response to the release of hazardous substances beyond cleanup and TSD sites must also have plans that include these elements and other specific requirements as indicated in 1910.120 (q). (Back to Text)

Footnote(4) A physical barricade, natural or man-made, that has been designed and constructed of sufficient thickness and density to withstand or deflect the impact loads of an adjacent explosion. (Back to Text)

Footnote(5) A designated work area within the worksite. (Back to Text)

Footnote(*) These states and territories operate their own OSHA-approved job safety and health programs (Connecticut and New York plans cover public employees only). States with approved programs must have a standard that is identical to, or at least as effective as, the federal standard. (Back to Text)