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1926 Subpart Q

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH                        1926 Subpart Q

Overview for Subpart Q
Concrete and Masonry

Q-1 What are the most frequently cited serious violations of the concrete and masonry construction standard?
  1. Failure to protect employees from impalement -- rebar not capped or covered. (1926.701(b))

  2. Failure to establish a limited access zone (LAZ) to limit the number of workers in the danger zone where a masonry wall is under construction. (1926.706(a)(1))

  3. Failure to brace unsupported section of masonry wall over 8 feet in height. (1926.706(b))

  4. Failure to have drawings or plans at the jobsite to indicate jack layout and formwork placement. (1926.703(a)(2))
Q-2 What are some effective control measures that can be used to guard rebar so employees cannot fall into or onto the rebar and become impaled?
  1. Prevent employees from working in an area where they may fall into or onto unprotected rebar. If this is not possible, use guardrails or other fall protection measures as outlined in Subpart M to eliminate the fall hazard from elevations.

  2. Rebar can be capped with special protective rebar covers to keep employees from being impaled. Do not use plastic or paper cups or tape as a rebar cover because they do not protect workers from impalement.

  3. The rebar can be bent (but only when an engineer has approved this practice) or the rebar can be covered with lumber (e.g., a 2" x 4" board).
Q-3 What are some of the effective control measures that can be used to eliminate the hazard of being in the danger zone to protect employees from being stuck by flying brick and block in the event of a wall collapse?
  1. Until the wall has gained sufficient strength that overturning (collapse) is no longer a hazard, keep employees out of the area where the wall is being constructed unless they are actually engaged in constructing the wall. The most effective control measure is to follow the standard by marking off an area with tape, rope, or chain or any other material that will indicate to employees that they are not to enter the zone (area) that has been marked. The zone should be equal to the length of the wall under construction and extend out a distance equal to the height of the wall to be constructed plus 4 feet. So if the wall to be constructed is 10 feet high and 30 feet long, the zone should be 14 feet x 30 feet.
Q-4 What are some of the ways to brace a wall over 8 feet to provide protection against the hazard of collapse?
  1. The project engineer or competent person should determine how best to brace the wall. According to the Magazine of Masonry Construction (November 1988) a typical masonry wall brace includes a vertical member, an inclined strut, stakes, and if necessary a strut-brace. Scaffold planks (2 x 10s) are typically used as the vertical member and the inclined strut, and 2 x 4s for stakes and strut-brace. 2 x 4s and 2 x 6s are considered by most experts to be inadequate for vertical members or inclined struts. All lumber must be in serviceable condition.

  2. The American National Standards Institute's Standard for Concrete and Masonry Work, ANSI A10.9-1983 standard recommends that "The support or bracing shall be designed by or under the supervision of a qualified person to withstand a minimum of 15 pounds per square foot. Local environmental conditions (e.g. strong winds) need to be considered in determining the bracing design. Braces or shores shall be secured in position."
TIPS Keep a copy of formwork drawings and plans at the jobsite for review by the employer, employees and OSHA compliance personnel. Formwork must be installed as shown on the drawings or plans.

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