This section applies to
every kind of crane and derrick and to any other type of equipment
performing the functions of a crane or derrick except as noted in paragraph
(a)(2) of this section.
This section does not
apply to small industrial truck-type cranes, container handling top-loaders
and sideloaders, chain hoists, and mobile straddle-type cranes incapable of
straddling two or more intermodal containers (16 feet (4.88 m) in
Except for bridge cranes
covered by paragraph (g) of this section, cranes and derricks having
ratings that vary with boom length, radius (outreach) or other variables
shall have a durable rating chart visible to the operator, covering the
complete range of the manufacturer's (or design) capacity ratings. The
rating chart shall include all operating radii (outreach) for all
permissible boom lengths and jib lengths as applicable, with and without
outriggers, and alternate ratings for optional equipment affecting such
ratings. Precautions or warnings specified by the owner or manufacturer
shall be included along with the chart.
The manufacturer's (or
design) rated loads for the conditions of use shall not be
Designated working loads
shall not be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design
limitations unless such increase receives the manufacturer's approval. When
the manufacturer's services are not available or where the equipment is of
foreign manufacture, engineering design analysis shall be performed or
approved by a person accredited for certificating the equipment under Part
1919 of this chapter. Engineering design analysis shall be performed by a
registered professional engineer competent in the field of cranes and
derricks. Any structural changes necessitated by the change in rating shall
be carried out.
Radius indicator. When the
rated load varies with the boom radius, the crane or derrick shall be
fitted with a boom angle or radius indicator visible to the
Equipment shall not be
used in a manner that exerts sideloading stresses upon the crane or derrick
No crane or derrick having
a visible or known defect that affects safe operation shall be
When exposed moving parts
such as gears, chains and chain sprockets present a hazard to employees
during crane and derrick operations, those parts shall be securely
Crane hooks shall be
latched or otherwise secured to prevent accidental load
Crane and derrick
operating controls shall be clearly marked, or a chart indicating their
function shall be posted at the operator's position.
After October 3, 1984,
overhead bridge and container gantry crane operating control levers shall
be self-centering so that they will automatically move to the "off"
position when the operator releases the control.
Booms. Cranes with
elevatable booms and without operable automatic limiting devices shall be
provided with boom stops if boom elevation can exceed maximum design angles
from the horizontal.
Foot pedals. Foot pedals
shall have a non-skid surface.
stairways, stanchions, grab irons, foot steps or equivalent means shall be
provided as necessary to ensure safe access to footwalks, cab platforms,
the cab and any portion of the superstructure which employees must
Footwalks shall be of
rigid construction and shall be capable of supporting a load of 100 pounds
(4.79 kPa) per square foot.
If more than 20 feet
(6.1 m) in height, vertical ladders shall comply with 1917.118 (d), (e)(1),
(e)(2)(iii), and (e)(2)(iv).
Stairways on cranes shall be equipped with rigid handrails meeting the
requirements of 1917.112(e).
If the top of a ladder
or stairway or any position thereof is located where a moving part of a
crane, such as a revolving house, could strike an employee ascending or
descending the ladder or stairway, a prominent warning sign shall be posted
at the foot of the ladder or stairway. A system of communication (such as a
buzzer or bell) shall be established and maintained between the foot of the
ladder or stairway and the operator's cab.
cab, controls and mechanism of the equipment shall be so arranged that the
operator has a clear view of the load or signalman, when one is used. Cab
glass, when used, shall be safety plate glass or equivalent. Cranes with
missing, broken, cracked, scratched, or dirty glass (or equivalent) that
impairs operator visibility shall not be used. Clothing, tools and
equipment shall be stored so as not to interfere with access, operation,
and the operator's view.
seat (lap) belt, meeting the requirements of 49 CFR 571.208-210 for a Type
1 seat belt assembly, shall be installed on the operator's seat of high
speed container gantry cranes where the seat trolleys.
Counterweights or ballast.
Cranes shall be operated only with the specified type and amount of
ballast or counterweights. Ballast or counterweight shall be located and
secured only as provided in the manufacturer's or design specifications,
which shall be available.
Outriggers. Outriggers shall be used according to the manufacturers'
specifications or design data, which shall be available. Floats, when used,
shall be securely attached to the outriggers. Wood blocks or other support
shall be of sufficient size to support the outrigger, free of defects that
may affect safety and of sufficient width and length to prevent the crane
from shifting or toppling under load.
Exhaust gases. Engine
exhaust gases shall be discharged away from the normal position of crane
Electrical equipment shall
be so located or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to
accidental contact. Designated persons may work on energized equipment only
if necessary during inspection, maintenance, or repair.
At least one portable
fire extinguisher of at least 5 - BC rating or equivalent shall be
accessible in the cab of the crane or derrick.
No portable fire
extinguisher using carbon tetrachloride or chlorobromomethane extinguishing
agents shall be used.
Rope on drums. At least
three full turns of rope shall remain on ungrooved drums, and two turns on
grooved drums, under all operating conditions. Wire rope shall be secured
to drums by clamps, U-bolts, shackles or equivalent means. Fiber rope
fastenings are prohibited.
Assembly or disassembly
of boom sections. Mobile crane booms being assembled or disassembled on the
ground with or without the support of the boom harness shall be blocked to
prevent dropping of the boom or boom sections.
hoisting unit of a crane shall be equipped with at least one holding brake,
applied directly to the motor shaft or gear train.
Each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm geared hoists, the
angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the
lowering direction, shall, in addition to a holding brake, be equipped with
a controlled braking means to control lowering speeds.
Holding brakes for
hoist units shall have not less than the following percentage of the rated
load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied:
125 percent when used with an other than mechanically controlled braking
100 percent when
used with a mechanically-controlled braking means.
100 percent when
two holding brakes are provided.
All power control
braking means shall be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated
Rail-mounted cranes (excluding
For the purposes of this
section, rail-mounted cranes include bridge ,cranes and portal
Rated load marking. The
rated loads of bridge cranes shall be plainly marked on each side of the
crane and In the cab. If there is more than one hoisting unit, each hoist
shall have its rated load marked on it or on its load block. Marking shall
be legible from the ground level.
After October 3, 1983,
each rail-mounted bridge and portal crane located outside of an enclosed
structure shall be fitted with an operable wind-indicating
The wind indicating
device shall provide a visible or audible warning to alert the operator of
high wind conditions. That warning shall be transmitted whenever the
following circumstances are present:
When wind velocity
reaches the warning speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's
When wind velocity
reaches the shutdown speed, not exceeding the crane manufacturer's
recommendations, at which work is to be stopped and the crane
employer shall post operating instructions for high wind conditions in the
operator's cab of each crane. Operators shall be directed to comply with
these instructions. The instructions shall include procedures for
responding to high wind alerts and for any coordination necessary with
Securing of cranes in high
When the wind reaches
the cranes warning speed:
Gantry travel shall
be stopped; and
The crane shall be
readied for shutdown.
When the wind reaches
the crane's shutdown speed:
Any portion of the
crane spanning or partially spanning a vessel shall be moved clear of the
vessel if safe to do so; and
The crane shall be
secured against travel, using all available means of securing.
The employer shall monitor
local weather conditions by subscribing to a weather service or using
equally effective means.
The ends of all tracks
shall be equipped with stops or bumpers. If a stop engages the tread of
the wheel, it shall be of a height not less than the radius of the
When more than one
crane operates on the same runway or more than one trolley on the same
bridge, each crane or trolley shall be equipped with bumpers or equivalent
devices at adjacent ends subject to impact.
Employee exposure to crane
movement. When employees may be in the vicinity of the tracks, crane
trucks shall be equipped with personnel deflecting guards.
Pedestrian clearance. If the track area is used for employee
passage or for work, a minimum clearance of three feet (.91 m) shall be
provided between trucks or the structures of rail-mounted cranes and
any other structure or obstruction. When the required clearance is not
available on at least one side of the crane's trucks, the area shall
not be used and shall be marked and identified.
Rail-mounted cranes shall be equipped with an effective travel warning
device which shall be used to warn employees who may be in the path of the
Communications. Means of
communication shall be provided between the operator's cab and the base of
the gantry of all rail-mounted cranes. This requirement may be met by
telephone, radio, sound-signalling system or other effective methods, but
not solely by hand-signalling.
switch bypass systems shall be secured during all cargo operations. Such
bypass systems shall not be used except in an emergency or during non-cargo
handling operations such as stowing cranes or derricks or performing
repairs. When a situation requiring the use of a bypass system or the
readjustment of a limit switch arises, it shall be done only under the
direction of a crane mechanic.
Stabilizing of locomotive
cranes. Loads may be hoisted by locomotive cranes only if outriggers are in
place, unless means are taken to prevent the load being carried by the
truck springs of the crane.
Use of cranes together.
When two or more cranes hoist a load in unison, a designated person shall
direct the operation and instruct personnel in positioning, rigging of the
load and movements to be made.
Guarding of swing radius.
Accessible areas within the swing radius of the body of a revolving crane
shall be physically guarded during operations to prevent an employee from
being caught between the body of the crane and any fixed structure or
between parts of the crane.
Securing mobile crane
components in transit. The crane's super structure and boom shall be
secured against rotation and carried in line with the direction of travel
except when negotiating turns with an operator in the cab or when the boom
is supported on a dolly. The empty hook or other attachment shall be
Unattended cranes. the
following steps shall be taken before leaving a crane unattended between
Suspended loads, such
as those hoisted by lifting magnets or clamshell buckets, shall be landed
unless the storage position or maximum hoisting of the suspended device
will provide equivalent safety;
Clutches shall be disengaged;
The power supply
shall be shut off;
The crane shall be
secured against accidental travel; and
The boom shall be
lowered or secured against movement.
Operating near electric power lines.
Clearance. Unless electrical distribution and transmission lines are
de-energized and visibly grounded at the point of work, or unless
insulating barriers not a part of or attached to the crane have been
erected to prevent physical contact with lines, cranes may be operated near
power lines only in accordance with the following:
For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance between the
lines and any part of the crane or load shall be 10 feet (3.05 m);
For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between the lines
and any part of the crane or load shall be either 10 feet (3.05 m) plus
0.4 inch (10.16 mm) for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length of
the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet; and
In transit with no load and boom lowered, the clearance shall
be a minimum of 4 feet (1.22 m).
Boom guards. Cage-type
boom guards, insulating links or proximity warning devices may be used on
cranes, but they shall not be used in place of the clearances required by
paragraph (i)(5)(i) of this section.
energized lines. Any overhead line shall be presumed to be energized until
the owner of the line indicates that it is not energized.
Protection for employees
No employee shall be
hoisted by the load hoisting apparatus of a crane or derrick
On intermodal container
spreaders, equipped in accordance with paragraph (j)(8) of this section;
In a boatswain's chair
or other device rigged to prevent it from accidental disengagement from
the hook or supporting member; or
On a platform meeting
the following requirements:
Enclosed by a
railing or other means providing protection equivalent tot hat described in
1917.112(c). If equipped with open railings, the platform shall be fitted
with toe boards;
Having a safety
factor of four based on ultimate strength;
Bearing a plate or
permanent marking indicating maximum load rating, which shall not be
exceeded, and the weight of the platform itself;
Equipped with a device to prevent access doors, when used, from opening
overhead protection for employees on the platform if they are exposed to
falling objects or overhead hazards;
Secured to the
load line by means other than wedge and socket attachments, unless the free
(bitter) end of the line is secured back to itself by a clamp placed as
close above the wedge as possible.
in an emergency, the hoisting mechanism of all cranes or derricks used to
hoist personnel shall operate only in power up and power down, with
automatic brake application when not hoisting or lowering.
Variable radius booms of a
crane or derrick used to hoist personnel shall be so constructed or
secured as to prevent accidental boom movement.
Platforms or devices used
to hoist employees shall be inspected for defects before each day's use
and shall be removed from service if defective.
Employees being hoisted
shall remain in continuous sight of and communication with the operator or
Operators shall remain at
the controls when employees are hoisted.
Cranes shall not travel
while employees are hoisted, except in emergency or in normal tier to tier
transfer of employees during container operations.
When intermodal container spreaders are used to transfer
employees to or from the tops of containers, the spreaders shall be
equipped with a personnel platform equipped with fixed railings,
provided that the railings have one or more openings for access. The
openings shall be fitted with a means of closure, such as chains with
hooks. Existing railings shall be at least 36 inches (0.91 m) in
height. New railings installed after October 3, 1983 shall be 42 inches
(1.07 m), plus or minus 3 inches (7.62 cm), in height. The provisions
of paragraphs (j)(1)(iii)(C), (j)(1)(iii)(D), and (j)(1)(iii)(F) of
this section also apply to personnel platforms when such container
spreaders are used.
Employees shall not be hoisted on intermodal container spreaders while a
load is engaged.
cranes and derricks used to hoist personnel shall be equipped with an
Designated persons shall
visually inspect each crane and derrick on each day of use for defects in
functional operating components and shall report any defect found to the
employer. the employer shall inform the operator of the findings.
A designated person shall
thoroughly inspect all functional components and accessible structural
features of each crane or device at monthly intervals.
Any defects found during
such inspections which may create a safety hazard shall be corrected before
further equipment use. Repairs shall be performed only by designated
A record of monthly
inspections shall be maintained for six months in or on the crane or
derrick or at the terminal.
[62 FR 40141, July 25, 1997; 65 FR 40940, June 30, 2000]