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Synonyms: Vinyl trichloride; beta-Trichloroethane
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2495
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 79-00-5
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KJ3150000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 55 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm, 45 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, possible human carcinogen
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [1 MB PDF, 23 pages]
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, nose; dermatitis; CNS depression, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness; headache, nausea; shortness of breath; liver, kidney damage; [potential occupational carcinogen]
Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8)
Affected Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys
Date Last Revised: 11/04/2005
- 1,1,2-Trichloroethane is absorbed through the skin. The percutaneous LD-25 in guinea pigs was 0.25 milliliter, and the LD-100 was 0.5 milliliter.
- The major urinary metabolites of 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents are S-carboxy-methylcysteine (free and conjugated), chloroacetic acid, and thiodiacetic acid. Another metabolite, carbon dioxide, is eliminated in expired air, along with unchanged 1,1,2-trichloroethane.
- A single dose of radiolabeled 1,1,2-trichloroethane in rodents caused covalent labeling of DNA, RNA and protein in the organs tested (liver, kidney, lung, stomach), indicating the formation of reactive metabolites.
- EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for 1,1,2-trichloroethane is 0.004 mg/kg/day.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Mazzullo, M., Colacci, A., Grilli, S., Prodi, G. and Arfellini, G.: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane: evidence of genotoxicity from short-term tests. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 77(6): 532-539, 1986.
- Mitoma, C., Steeger, T., Jackson, S.E., Wheeler, K.P., Rogers, J.H. and Milman, H.A.: Metabolic disposition study of chlorinated hydrocarbons in rats and mice.
Drug Chem. Toxicol. 8(3): 183-194, 1985.
- No authors listed: 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 52 [85 KB PDF, 35 pages]: 337-359, 1991.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2248-2250.
Wipe Sampling Method:
- sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 11)
method classification: Fully Validated
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sampling media: Charcoal pad
note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
Page last updated: 09/05/2006
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