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Synonyms: TCA; Trichloroethanoic acid; Amchem grass killer; Konesta; Varitox; Aceto-caustin
OSHA IMIS Code Number: T337
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 76-03-9
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: AJ7875000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1839 153 (solid); 2564 153 (solution)
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Trichloroacetic Acid: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 ppm, 6.7 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm TWA
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, Not Classifiable as to its Carcinogenicity to Humans [494 KB PDF, 38 pages]
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): Group A3, Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, Possible Human Carcinogen
Potential symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat, respiratory system; cough, dyspnea (breathing difficulty), pulmonary edema (may be delayed); headache; sore throat; eye, skin burns; dermatitis; salivation, vomiting, diarrhea; INGES ACUTE: Burning sensation; abdominal pain; shock or collapse.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Acute lung damage/edema (HE11).
Affected organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, GI tract
- There is no OSHA PEL for TCA.
- TCA is a metabolite of trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylchloroform, and the drug, chloral hydrate.
- TCA has been measured in the urine, where higher levels were found in urban populations drinking chlorinated water.
- TCA is a liver carcinogen in mice (but not in rats) with questionable relevance to humans.
Date Last Revised: 07/14/2004
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Trichloroacetic Acid.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Trichloroacetic acid.
- Bull R.J., et al.: Contribution of dichloroacetate and trichloroacetate to liver tumor induction in mice by trichloroethylene. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 182(1): 55-65, 2002.
- Calafat, A.M., Kuklenyik, Z., Caudill, S.P. and Ashley, D.L.: Urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid, a disinfection by-product in chlorinated drinking water, in a human reference population. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(2): 151-154, 2003.
- Forkert, P.-G., Lash, L., Tardif, R., Tanphaichitr, N., Vandevoort, C. and Moussa, M.: Identification of trichloroethylene and its metabolites in human seminal fluid of workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Drug Metab. Dispos. 31(3): 306-311, 2003.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Trichloroacetic Acid. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp.2239-2241.
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
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- sampling media: Silica Gel Tube (150/75 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Deionized Water
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2017)
method classification: Partially Validated
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