||Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: Methylacetaldehyde; Propanal; Propionic aldehyde; Propyl aldehyde
OSHA IMIS Code Number: P129
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 123-38-6
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: UE0350000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1275 129 [27 KB, PDF]
Chemical Description and Physical Properties: colorless liquid with pungent odor
molecular formula: C3H6O
molecular weight: 58.1
boiling point: 49°C
flash point: -30°C closed cup
melting point: -81°C
vapor pressure: 31.3 kPa @ 20°C
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 20 ppm, 47.5 mg/m3 TWA
Potential symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; cough, sore throat; eye and skin pain, redness; INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Pulmonary edema (HE4)
Affected organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- OSHA does not have a PEL for propionaldehyde.
- Vapor/air mixtures of propionaldehyde may be explosive.
- Propionaldehyde is listed by the FDA as a synthetic flavoring substance that is permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption (21 CFR 172.515).
- Like acetaldehyde, the metabolism of propionaldehyde (to propionic acid) is substantially decreased in liver preparations from individuals who are genetically heterozygous for the mutant form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2.
- In a study of inhalation toxicity in rats exposed intermittently to 23 mg/m3 (~10 ppm) for 3 weeks, propionaldehyde was reported to cause emphysema.
- In contrast, the RD50 (concentration of sensory irritant necessary to decrease respiratory rate by 50%) in rats acutely exposed to propionaldehyde for 10 minutes was estimated to be 6,789 ppm, indicating that this reflex does not protect rats from propionaldehyde-induced lung damage.
Date Last Revised: 01/30/2007
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Propionaldehyde.
- U.S. DHHS Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances: Proprionaldehyde (RTECS # UE0350000).
- Babiuk, C., Steinhagen, W.H. and Barrow, C.S.: Sensory irritation to inhaled aldehydes after formaldehyde pretreatment. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 79(1): 143-149, 1985.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Propionaldehyde. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1954-1955.
- Wang, R.-S., Nakajima, T., Kawamoto, T. and Honma, T.: Effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genetic polymorphisms on metabolism of structurally different aldehydes in human liver. Drug Metab. Dispos. 30(1): 69-73, 2002.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
sampling media: Coated XAD-2 Tube (150/75 mg sections, 20/60 mesh); coating is 10% (w/w) 2-(Hydroxymethyl)piperidine
analytical solvent: Toluene
maximum volume: 5 Liters maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD with GC/MS identification
method reference: OSHA Modified NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 2539) [255 KB, PDF]
method classification: Partially Validated
note: OSHA modification is use of GC/NPD in place of GC/FID. This is a screening method and is not quantitative.
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