||Chemical Sampling Information:
Synonyms: Oxalic acid dihydrate; Ethanedioic acid
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1970
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 144-62-7
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: RO2450000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Oxalic Acid: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 1 mg/m3 TWA
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 1 mg/m3 TWA
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 1 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 mg/m3 TWA; 2 mg/m3 STEL
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 mg/m3 TWA; 2 mg/m3 STEL
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 mg/m3
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Potential symptoms: Eye, mucous membrane, skin irritation; eye burns; local pain; cyanosis (blue lips, fingernails, skin); shock, collapse, convulsions; kidney damage; pulmonary edema (may be delayed); INGES: Sore throat, burning sensation, abdominal pain, vomiting; diarrhea and bloody stools; drowsiness; numbness of fingers and toes.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Lung edema (HE11); Acute systemic effects (HE4)
Affected organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, kidneys
Notes: 1) Oxalic acid is a normal minor metabolite of carbohydrates (e.g., fructose), glycine, and vitamin C, but it is produced in toxic amounts after ethylene glycol intoxication. 2) Kidney dialysis patients may be particularly susceptible to oxalate-induced nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. 3) Prolonged barbiturate sleeping time in rats treated with star fruit juice was attributed to its high oxalate content, indicating a possible inhibition of some drug-metabolizing cytochrome P-450s in the liver. 4) Calcium oxalate crystals, which occur in certain plants, may cause irritant contact dermatitis in agricultural workers.
Date Last Revised: 10/28/2004
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Oxalic Acid.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Oxalic acid.
- Chen, C.L., Chou, K.J., Wang, J.S., Yeh, J.H., Fang, H.C. and Chung, H.M.: Neurotoxic effects of carambola in rats: the role of oxalate. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 101(5): 337-441, 2002.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Oxalic Acid. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1763-1765.
- Rofe, A.M., James, H.M., Bais, R., Edwards, J.B. and Conyers, R.A.: The production of (14C) oxalate during the metabolism of (14C) carbohydrates in isolated rat hepatocytes. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 58(2): 103-116, 1980.
- Salinas, M.L., Ogura, T. and Soffchi, L.: Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations. Contact Dermatitis 44(2): 94-96, 2001.
- Tse, K.C., et al.: Star fruit intoxication in uraemic patients: case series and review of the literature. Intern. Med. J. 33(7): 314-316, 2003.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
* All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns
maximum volume: 960 Liters maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min (TWA)
maximum volume: 30 Liters maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min (STEL)
current analytical method: Ion Chromatography; IC
method reference: OSHA SLTC In-House File
method classification: Not Validated
note: Submit as a separate sample. If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period. Within 1 hour after the sample has been collected, transfer the filter to a clean screw cap vial.
Wipe sampling: Whatman smear tab; Solvent: Deionized water