||Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: Isopentane; Ethyldimethylethane; Isoamylhydride
OSHA IMIS Code Number: R228
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 78-78-4
Additional Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 109-66-0 (Pentane)
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: EK4430000
Chemical Description and Physical Properties: colorless liquid, with characteristic odor.
molecular formula: C5H12
molecular weight: 72.17
boiling point: 28°C
vapor pressure: 79 kPa at 20°C
melting point: -160°C
There is no specific OSHA PEL or NIOSH REL for this compound.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 120 ppm; 350 mg/m3 TWA; 610 ppm, 1800 mg/m3 Ceiling (15 Minutes)
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 600 ppm, 1770 mg/m3 TWA (TLV listed under Pentane, All isomers)
Potential symptoms: Eye, nose, throat and skin irritation; cough, sore throat; headache, shortness of breath; dizziness, drowsiness, loss of coordination, unconsciousness; irregular heartbeat; redness, dryness and cracking of skin; rash or burning sensation on contact with liquid; INGES ACUTE: Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting; chemical pneumonitis (following aspiration of liquid)
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18).
Affected organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS.
Notes: 1) OSHA does not have a PEL for 2-methyl butane. 2) Vapor/air mixtures are explosive. 3) No toxic effects of the vapor have been reported at levels less than 14,000 ppm, the minimum explosive limit in air. 4) Metabolized in mice or by animal liver microsomes to various methyl-butanol derivatives and to 3-methyl-2-butanone. Potential use of any of these metabolites as markers of occupational exposure has not been reported.
Date Last Revised: 01/26/2005
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Isopentane.
- Chiba, S. and Oshida, S.: Metabolism and toxicity of n-pentane and isopentane [Japanese]. Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi 45(2): 128-137, 1991.
- Galvin, J.B. and Marashi, F.: 2-Methylbutane (isopentane). CAS# 78-78-4. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 58(1-2): 23-33, 1999.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Isopentane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1341-1342.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
maximum volume: 4 Liters maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1500)
method classification: Partially Validated