||Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: HCB; Perchlorobenzene; Pentachlorophenylchloride; Phenyl perchloryl
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1376
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 118-74-1
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: DA2975000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2729 152
Chemical Description and Physical Properties: Colorless to white solid in various forms.
molecular formula: C6Cl6
molecular weight: 284.76
boiling point: 323-326°C
vapor pressure: 0.001 Pa @ 20°C
melting point: 231°C
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.002 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Reasonably Anticipated to be a Human Carcinogen
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2B, Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Group B2, Probable Human Carcinogen
Potential symptoms: INGES. ACUTE: Headache, nausea, vomiting; loss of sensory perception, numbness of hands and arms, partial paralysis of arms and legs, loss of muscle control; apprehension, excitement, tremors, convulsions, coma; INGES. CHRONIC (delayed symptoms): Porphyrinuria (red or dark urine); enlarged liver; goiter (enlarged thyroid); loss of appetite; photosensitivity, bullae (large blisters), severe mutilating scars, hyperpigmentation (darkening of skin), hirsutism (excessive hair); relatively painless arthritic changes, osteoporosis in hand bones, small hands; weakness, paresthesia, myotonia (temporary failure of muscle relaxation), cogwheeling (jerkiness of muscle contraction). In nursing infants: weakness, pink sores, convulsions, death.
Health Effects: Nervous System Disturbances (HE7); Chronic Toxicity---Liver, Thyroid, Skin, Developmental Toxicity, Death of Nursing Infants (HE3).
Affected organs: CNS, liver, reproductive system (ovaries), thyroid, skin, bone
- OSHA does not have a PEL for hexachlorobenzene.
- Hexachlorobenzene is an OSHA Select Carcinogen.
- Infants and children may be more susceptible than adults to the neurotoxicity of hexachlorobenzene, and symptoms of toxicity may persist for more than 30 years.
- CYP3A4 is one of the cytochrome P450s that biotransform hexachlorobenzene to pentachlorophenol, which can be further metabolized to the reactive metabolite, tetrachlorohydroquinone. Most hexachlorobenzene, however, is slowly excreted unchanged in the feces over a period of years.
- EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for hexachlorobenzene is 0.0008 mg/kg/day.
- Hexachlorobenzene should not be confused with benzene hexachloride (hexachlorocyclohexane), the gamma isomer of which is known as the pesticide lindane.
Date Last Revised: 09/08/2005
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR): Toxicological profile for hexachlorobenzene. Atlanta: ATSDR, 2002, 357 pp.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Hexachlorobenzene. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Hexachlorobenzene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1234-1236.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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sampling media: Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
analytical solvent: Toluene
maximum volume: 480 Liters maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/ECD
method reference: OSHA SLTC In-House File
method classification: Not Validated