||Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: Methyl tribromide; Tribromomethane
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0400
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-25-2
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: PB5600000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2515 159
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Bromoform: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 0.5 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 0.5 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 0.5 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 ppm, 5.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.5 ppm, 5.2 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 3, Not Classifiable as to its Carcinogenicity to Humans
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Group B2, Probable Human Carcinogen
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 850 ppm
Potential symptoms: Eye, skin, respiratory system irritation; CNS depression; liver, kidney damage; reddening of the face; salivation; disturbance of movements; cough, labored breathing; headache, dizziness, convulsions, loss of memory, unconsciousness; shock.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eye Nose, Throat---Marked (HE14); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Narcosis (HE8).
Affected organs: Eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, respiratory system, CNS
Notes: 1) The odor threshold for bromoform (1.3 ppm) is greater than its PEL. 2) CNS depressant effects of bromoform may be due to a potentiation of the activity of GABA(A) receptors. 3) Bromoform is more permeable through human skin in vitro than is chloroform. 4) EPA's reference dose (RfD) for oral exposure to bromoform is 0.02 mg/kg/day. 5. Although bromoform can be metabolized to carbon monoxide, breath analysis of parent compound has been recommended as a biological index of occupational exposure to the trihalomethanes. 6) In the early 1900s, bromoform was used as a sleeping aid for children with whooping cough.
Date Last Revised: 06/03/2005
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Bromoform.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Bromoform.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Bromoform. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., Predieri, G., Ceppelli, G., Gobba, F. and Aggassotti, G.: Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools. Sci. Total Environ. 264(3): 257-265, 2001.
- Kash, T.L., Jenkins, A. and Harrison, N.L.: Molecular volume determines the activity of the halogenated alkane bromoform at wild-type and mutant GABA(A) receptors. Brain Res. 960(1-2): 36-41, 2003.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Bromoform. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 377-379.
- Anders, M.W., Stevens, J.L., Sprague, R.W., Shaath, Z. and Ahmed, A.E.: Metabolism of haloforms to carbon monoxide. II. In vivo studies. Drug Metab. Dispos. 6(5): 556-560, 1978.
- Xu, X., Mariano, T.M., Laskin, J.D. and Weisel, C.P.: Percutaneous absorption of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and haloketones. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 184(1): 19-26, 2002.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
maximum volume: 10 Liters maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003)
method classification: Partially Validated
Wipe sampling: Wipe with charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment.