||Chemical Sampling Information
Synonyms: 4-pyridinamine; Avitrol
OSHA IMIS Code Number: A173
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 504-24-5
NIOSH, Registry of Toxic Effects (RTECS) Identification Number: US1750000
Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2671 153
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
molecular formula: C5H6N2
Potentially hazardous incompatibilities: acids
molecular weight: 94.11
boiling point: 273°C
melting point: 159°C
Potential symptoms: INGES. ACUTE: disagreeable taste; immediate burning of throat; abdominal discomfort; salivation; restlessness, dizziness, light-headedness, paresthesia, tremor, hyperexcitability, involuntary choreoathetoid movement of extremeties, convulsions; respiratory arrest; metabolic acidosis; cardiac arrhythmias; elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (delayed); CONTACT EXPOS.: burns to eyes, skin.
Health Effects: Convulsions (HE7); Irritation-Eyes, Throat, Skin---Marked (HE14); Potential liver damage (HE3)
Affected organs: CNS, eyes, skin, liver
- OSHA does not have a PEL for 4-aminopyridine.
- 4-Aminopyridine is a potassium channel blocker first used as an avicide (Avitrol) that continues to be studied as an orphan drug (fampridine) in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and chronic spinal cord injury in the hope that it will show sufficient evidence of efficacy to achieve FDA approval for a specific indication.
- Most 4-aminopyridine is excreted unchanged in the urine. Its mean terminal half-life in plasma is on the order of 3 to 4 hours.
Date Last Revised: 01/18/2006
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
- Hayes, K.C.: The use of 4-aminopyridine (fampridine) in demyelinating disorders. CNS Drug Rev. 10(4): 295-316, 2004.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 4-Aminopyridine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 141-143.
- Velez, L., Shirazi, F., Goto, C., Shepherd, G. and Roth, B.A.: Opisthotonic posturing with neuromuscular irritability attributable to 4-aminopyridine ingestion by a healthy pediatric patient. Pediatrics 111(1): e82-84, 2003.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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sampling media: three-piece cassettes containing two sulfuric acid-treated glass fiber filters separated by a ring
analytical solvent: 0.1 N NaOH
maximum volume: 240 Liters maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2143)
method classification: Partially Validated