In 1998 federal OSHA required all state plans to include an annual performance plan in their grant
application and to meet requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA). States
were required to submit a five-year strategic plan for 1999-2003. State programs were required to
adopt OSHA’s first strategic goal: to “improve workplace safety and health for all workers, as
evidenced by fewer hazards, reduced exposures, and fewer injuries, illnesses and fatalities.”
Strategic and performance planning focuses on safety and health outcomes rather than activities.
OSHA and all states included decreased injury and illness rates and fatalities for selected
industries or worksites in their strategic goals. Over the past five years, the plans provided the
state programs with a focus for enforcement and outreach resources, and enabled them to develop
results-based measurement systems. Most of the state plan states are currently in the first year of
their second five-year strategic plan. The state plans are dedicated to building on the successes of
the first five years, while also moving to address new areas of concern–with the overall goal of
focusing resources on activities that result in workplace safety and health improvements.
State plans maintain a strong enforcement presence for employers not meeting their safety and health
responsibilities by focusing on worksites and industries with the highest injury and illness rates.
One important aspect of a state’s strategic and performance planning is coordination of enforcement,
consultation, education and training in targeting hazards, industries and occupations identified in
the strategic plans. Cooperative programs and partnerships supplement traditional enforcement
Another significant component is emphasis on increased employer and worker awareness of the value
and importance of safety and health programs through expanded delivery of targeted outreach. State
goals identified in their strategic plan establish the parameters by which federal OSHA evaluates
the state program.
Alaska is in the first year of a new five-year plan. The three major strategic goals are:
- Improve workplace safety and health in both the public and private sectors as evidenced by a
reduction in the rate of illnesses, injuries, and fatalities.
- Promote a safety and health culture in the Alaskan workplace (both public and private sectors)
through compliance assistance, cooperative programs, and consultation assistance.
- Secure public confidence through excellence in the development and delivery of Alaska Occupational
Safety and Health programs and services.
In addition to construction (a national emphasis industry), Alaska is also targeting the
transportation and warehousing industry as a result of workers’ compensation data analysis.
Arizona’s Strategic plan contains five annual performance goals within two major goals of the plan.
Construction continues to be one of the high-hazard industries nationwide and ADOSH has directed
significant resources to reducing the number of work-related injuries, illnesses and fatalities in
Arizona’s construction industry.
ADOSH is committed to building and maintaining partnerships with Arizona organizations and
individuals with an interest in workplace safety and health. ADOSH recognizes that the division’s
effectiveness in reducing workplace injuries, illnesses and fatalities depends on the active
involvement and support provided by management, labor, and government.
Arizona has devoted significant resources to increase public awareness of the importance of
workplace safety and health by offering partnerships to employers, providing compliance assistance
services, improving outreach efforts, and encouraging active worker participation. By increasing
public confidence in the Division, ADOSH expects employers and employees to be more willing to use
the services provided which will help to eliminate hazards and provide a safe working environment.
In addition, Arizona has established a close relationship with the Spanish speaking media and ADOSH
has had articles published periodically to get the word out about its services, accidents that have
occurred and how they can be prevented.
As part of California’s high-hazard consultative assistance and high-hazard enforcement, various
efficacy outcome measures have been obtained over the years from employers to measure
pre-intervention and post-intervention data. Among these measures are injury and illness rates,
injury and illness severity rates, number and type of preventable work-related injuries and
illnesses, and pertinent data about workers’ compensation claims made and costs per claim.
In reviewing efficacy measures from a sample of high-hazard employers, it has been determined that
both the high-hazard consultation program and the high-hazard enforcement program have been
effective interventions in reducing injuries and illnesses and workers’ compensation claims. These
programs have a continuing role to play as part of Cal/OSHA’s efforts to eliminate workplace
hazards, as well as to reduce injuries and illnesses and workers’ compensation losses in California
Iowa registered successful results during the last year of their strategic plan. Under their first
strategic goal, construction fatalities showed an overall 20.2 percent decrease in these incident
rates over four years, which exceeded the targeted goal. Under their second goal, the overall
occupational injury and illness incidence rate for Iowa decreased 12.3 percent overall for four
Performance outcome measures also showed that 38.7 percent of all IOSHA interventions (formal and
informal) were comprehensive interventions that ensured employers in Iowa had either implemented a
safety and health program or improved their existing program in FY2002. Iowa showed a significantly
improved response time over the previous year in FY2002, with 95.5 percent of the fatality and
catastrophe inspections initiated by the next working day, and 97.9 percent of complaints processed
within three working days.
Using Bureau of Labor Statistics data from 1997, Kentucky identified five industries as having the
highest incident rates in the Commonwealth. Kentucky’s strategic objective was to reduce injury and
illness rates in these industries by 15 percent during the course of the five years covered by the
By the close of the five-year period, however, all targeted industries had dropped dramatically,
sharply exceeding the OSH Program’s objective. The Total Case Rate for Meat Packing, for example
fell by 69 percent over the course of the strategic plan period. Motor Vehicles and Motor Equipment
showed a reduction of 34.5 percent. As a percentage change, rates for Household Appliances saw the
sharpest change, plummeting 78.2 percent from 1997 to 2002. Meanwhile, the Total Case Rates for
Fabricated Structural Steel and Refrigeration and Service Industry Machinery fell 55.5 percent and
47 percent, respectively.
The change in these industries has been so dramatic that all but one has fallen from the 2002 five
highest incident rate industries, and three are no longer found even in Kentucky’s top ten list.
Perhaps of most significance is that the five year period began with Kentucky’s highest ranked SIC’s
having Total Case Rates in the range of 24.7 to 31.6 and ended with no industry in the state having
a rate higher than 19.9.
Kentucky targeted four specific, prevalent types of injuries in construction for attention in the
FY1999-2003 strategic plan, including falls, struck-by injuries, crushed-by injuries and
electrocutions. The Program’s strategic objective was to reduce these construction injuries by 15
percent during the five-year period.
Although BLS data for electrocutions in construction was unavailable because incident levels were
extraordinarily low and did not meet publication guidelines, rates from 1997 through 2001 for the
other three categories were published based upon lost workday cases. The rate of fall injuries in
construction from 1997 through 2002 (the most recent injury characteristic data available), was
reduced by an impressive 47.1 percent. During the same period, struck-by injuries fell 21.2 percent
and crushed-by injuries dropped 42.4 percent.
The MIOSHA Strategic Plan for FY 03-08 calls for targeting both outreach and enforcement resources
toward some of the most hazardous industries in Michigan, including: construction, furniture and
fixtures, primary metals, fabricated metal products, industrial machine and equipment, and
transportation equipment. MIOSHA also directed efforts toward reducing ergonomic-related injuries
and illnesses, amputations, and noise-induced hearing loss.
MIOSHA developed their plan with substantial stakeholder input, and used the team concept to develop
the performance goals. The goal is to reduce injuries and illnesses in targeted industries by 20
percent at the end of the five-year plan. Workplace fatalities continue to decrease in most areas.
Four of five goals set forth in MNOSHA’s five-year strategic plan were realized in FY03. Bureau of
Labor Statistics figures also indicate injury and lost-workday case rates dropped during the same
five-year period. The total injury rate in Minnesota per 100 full-time-equivalent (FTE) workers was
7.7 in 1998, 6.0 in 2002 – a 22-percent reduction. The lost-workday case rate per 100 FTE workers
was 3.5 in 1998, 3.1 in 2002 – an 11- percent reduction.
MNOSHA’s five-year strategic goal to reduce injuries and illnesses in six high-hazard industries by
15 percent by focusing on those workplaces with the highest rates of injuries and illnesses was
exceeded in four of the six targeted SICs. MNOSHA also successfully reached and surpassed its
five-year strategic goal to respond to 95 percent of written requests for assistance within five
working days. Complete results are available in the
MNOSHA annual report for 2003 [447 KB PDF, 69 pages].
New York’s Public Employee Safety and Health Bureau (PESH) has completed its first five-year
strategic plan and has entered into its second five-year strategic plan. The goal of the first strategic
plan was to reduce workplace injuries in SIC codes 1611, 4111, 805, 9224 each by 10 percent. Data for
the first four years of the plan indicate that all four areas of focus have exceeded the injury reduction
goal of 10 percent. The current strategic plan will continue to focus on three of the high injury rate SIC
codes. The goal is to further reduce injury rates by 10 percent over the next five years.
Outreach efforts for each of these industries include:
- SIC 1611 (Heavy Construction-except Building) - Injury reduction after four years was 15 percent. This workgroup is continuing to develop partnerships with highway
departments to provide training seminars on safety and health topics.
- SIC 805 (County Nursing Homes and State Veterans’ Homes) - Based on data collected, injury rates
have decreased by 15.77 percent. Networking opportunities between Nursing Homes with low injury
rates and those with higher injury rates was facilitated. “Employee Injury Prevention in Long Term
Care” conferences were held across New York State.
- SIC 9224 (Fire Service) - This workgroup has developed partnerships with over 600 local fire
organizations, firefighter unions, associations and individual fire departments to cooperatively
provide training to firefighters.
North Carolina established a five-year performance goal of reducing the fatality incidence rate in
logging and construction by 20 percent. There were a total of 16 logging fatalities and 32
construction fatalities in the base line year. However, by the fifth and final year of the strategic
plan, the fatality rate for logging had been cut by 85.3 percent, which represented a reduction in
fatalities to two and in construction by 31.4 percent, with 25 fatalities.
Oregon OSHA’s strategic plan focuses on three major areas: Workplace Culture, Workplace Safety &
Health, and Public Confidence. While the goal of Oregon’s strategic plan is to reduce worker
injuries, illnesses, and fatalities in all industries, many activities in the plan are focused on
five targeted industries. These industries are agriculture, construction, food and kindred products,
lumber and wood products, and health care.
Highlights of FY 2003 plan activities include:
- Twenty-one fatalities were investigated during FY 2003, a decrease of 37 percent from FY 2002.
- A total of 77 companies were SHARP certified as of September 30, 2003.
- Two new companies received VPP status in FY 2003, increasing the total to 7 sites.
- 727 fall emphasis inspections were conducted in FY 2003.
- Customer surveys in all program areas reflected a 91 percent or higher satisfaction rating.
- Twenty collaborations and partnerships with stakeholders were active during the year.
Due to significant revisions of the plan in the second year, Oregon OSHA’s current 5-year strategic
plan will be concluded in FY 2005.
The 5 year Strategic Plan implemented by Tennessee OSHA resulted in the:
- Elimination of 24,158 serious workplace hazards,
- Reduction of carbon monoxide exposure to acceptable levels for 4,731 employees,
- Reduction of fatalities from falls by 14 percent,
- Reduction of the lost workday incident rate in nursing homes by 35 percent,
- Reduction of the lost workday incident rate in metal working industries by 20 percent,
- Reduction of the lost workday incident rate in construction industries by 5 percent,
- Training of 42,597 employees and employers on safety and health topics, and
- Improvement of safety and health programs in 3,882 workplaces.
New target areas include reducing amputations, and reducing employee exposure to methylene chloride.
Utah completed its first five-year strategic plan in FY2003. Overall, it was assessed that the
majority of the goals in the plan were accomplished, but valuable lessons were learned. Due to
budget reductions mid-way through the plan, a critical source of data collection was eliminated
resulting in the inability to continue progress toward the accomplishment of those goals. As a
result, the new Utah occupational safety and health strategic plan is modeled closely after the
federal plan and utilizes only data sources that will not be affected by budget reductions.
During FY 2003, Virginia continued its emphasis on high-hazard worksites and remains committed to
the same strategic goals as federal OSHA. Virginia finalized its state unique regulation to
supersede §§1926.760 (a), (b) and (c) of OSHA’s revised final rule on Fall Protection in Steel
Erection. VOSH’s changes require fall protection at the 10-foot level rather than 15 feet; requires
that workers connecting structural steel be tied off unless steel is moving in the air; and also
prohibits the use of controlled decking zones.
VOSH also initiated regulatory action to amend the General Requirements for Clearances, Construction
of Electric Transmission and Distribution Lines and Equipment standard, §1926.950 (c)(1)(i). This
amendment will provide identical safety protections for construction electrical transmission workers
equivalent to safety protections already afforded general industry workers performing similar tasks
Washington’s strategic plan agreement streamlined targeting based on safety and health priorities in
partnership with business and labor, and enhanced coordination between WISHA enforcement,
consultation and risk management.
Washington’s strategic plan focuses on improving workplace safety and health by reducing hazards,
injuries, illnesses and fatalities. It is also focused on achieving program excellence through
regulatory improvement, outreach and training, and quality service delivery. Key results over the
past five years include:
- Increased the number of enforcement inspections and consultation visits.
- Increased the number of serious violations and serious hazards identified and corrected.
- Reduced the average compensable claims rate for fixed site employers visited by WISHA by 29.9
percent more than the decrease for employers with no WISHA activity. The rate for non-fixed site
employers, such as construction and logging, decreased 18.4 percent more for employers visited by
- Reduced the rate of fall injuries in residential wood frame construction by 17.5 percent, and eye
injuries by 29.5 percent.
- Rewrote and redesigned WISHA’s general safety and health rules to make them easier to understand
and follow. These core rules which are published in one book, and available on CD and the Internet,
are all that most of the state’s employers need to follow to be in compliance with WISHA
- Greatly expanded the use of the Internet to provide outreach and training materials. Washington’s
website includes online videos, interactive courses, publications that can be downloaded, and sample
accident prevention programs that employers can customize for their business. WISHA also provides a
Spanish version of their website including a description of services, answers to frequently asked
questions, and Spanish language publications.
- Decreased the time it takes to issue safety and h ealth citations, and the time it takes to ensure
that serious hazards and violations are corrected. Together, this has resulted in shorter periods of
time that workers are exposed to the hazards identified during inspections and consultations.
Wyoming can access the workers’ compensation data of over 16,000 companies. This information
is used to measure the impact of consultation visits and compliance inspections. During federal fiscal
year (FY) 2003, these employers reported 1,292 fewer claims than in the prior
year. The 508 companies Wyoming consulted or inspected submitted 618 less
claims. To put this in perspective, approximately 3 percent of the total number
of the employers accounted for 48 percent of the claims reduction. Additionally,
in FY2003, the employers inspected and public sector ones consulted filed 16 percent
fewer claims than in the year before. Cost was down 19 percent and employment down
by only 1.3 percent. Private sector employers consulted had 11
percent fewer claims, while cost was up over 2 percent. During the four-period,
FY2000 through 2003, the 16,000 plus employers reduced claims by 2,123. Visits were
made to 2,579 of these companies and they reported 1,122 fewer claims. So,
16 percent of the total was credited with 52 percent
of the overall reduction. Over this period, inspected employers and public sector employers consulted posted
a 6.8 percent reduction in claims, a 6.7 percent cost
reduction, and employment was up 3.7 percent. Private sector employers consulted
had 9.5 percent fewer claims, costs were down 4.9 percent,
and employment was up 2 percent.
A successful method of reducing claims has been the 75/25 plan, where an employer is offered a 75
percent penalty reduction if workers’ compensation claims are reduced by 25 percent
during the next 12 months. In FY2003, 25 companies, 0.16
percent of the 16,000 plus employers, reduced claims by 145 or
11 percent of the 1,292 total claims. Looking at
five years of data, there was a net reduction of 1,194 claims from FY1999
through FY2003. Eighty-four (84) employers in the 75/25 plan or 0.53
percent reduced 458 claims for 33 percent of the total.
Next Section: Customer Service: Increasing Program Satisfaction»
Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs at 202-693-2200 for assistance accessing PDF materials.