|<< Back to Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines
This guideline summarizes pertinent information about varnish makers and printers naphtha (VM & P naphtha) for workers and employers as well as for physicians, industrial hygienists, and other occupational safety and health professionals who may need such information to conduct effective occupational safety and health programs. Recommendations may be superseded by new developments in these fields; readers are therefore advised to regard these recommendations as general guidelines and to determine whether new information is available.
(For Structure, see paper copy)* Synonyms
Dry-cleaners' naphtha, light naphtha, ligroin, refined solvent naphtha, spotting naphtha* Identifiers
1. CAS No.: 8032-32-4 (or 8031-06-9)* Appearance and odor
VM & P naphtha is refined petroleum solvent which is a colorless to light yellow, flammable and explosive liquid with an aromatic odor. VM & P naphtha is commercially available in at least three distinct compositions with varying boiling points and flash points. It contains varying amounts of saturated, aromatic, and olefinic hydrocarbons, and typically includes less than one percent benzene. An odor threshold of 0.89 part per million (ppm) parts of air has been reported.CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
* Physical data
1. Molecular weight: 87 to 114* Reactivity
1. Conditions contributing to instability: Heat, sparks, open flames, and other ignition sources.* Flammability
The National Fire Protection Association has assigned a flammability rating of 4 (severe fire hazard) to VM & P naphtha.EXPOSURE LIMITS
* OSHA PEL
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not currently regulate VM & P naphtha.* NIOSH REL
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for VM & P naphtha of 350 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3)) of air() as a TWA for up to a 10-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek and 1800 mg/m(3) as a 15-minute ceiling limit [NIOSH 1992].* ACGIH TLV
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned VM & P naphtha a threshold limit value (TLV) of 300 ppm (1370 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek [ACGIH 1994, p. 36].* Rationale for Limits
The NIOSH limit is based on the risk of eye, nose, and throat irritation, dermatitis, and nervous system effects [NIOSH 1992].
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
* Routes of Exposure
Exposure to VM & P naphtha can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.* Summary of toxicology
1. Effects on Animals: VM & P naphtha causes central nervous system depression and is a skin irritant in experimental animals; related petroleum middle distillate have caused skin tumors in mice. The 4-hour LC(50) in rats is 3400 ppm [ACGIH 1991]. Rats lost coordination and developed convulsions within 15 minutes of exposure at 15,000 ppm [NIOSH 1991]. No adverse effects were observed in dogs exposed to 500 ppm VM & P naphtha for 30 hours/week for 13 weeks (65 days) [ACGIH 1991]. Middle distillates containing no detectable polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were inactive as mutagens in the Ames assay. The genotoxic potential of these compounds is linked to their polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content [ACGIH 1991]. Topical application of petroleum middle distillates to mice was associated with severe skin irritation and a significant increase in squamous cell carcinomas [ACGIH 1991]. Topical application of middle distillate naphtha containing no polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons 3 days/week or 6 weeks to mice was associated local necrosis, ulceration, and marked regenerative epidermal hyperplasia [ACGIH 1991].* Signs and symptoms of exposure
1. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to VM & P naphtha can result in coughing, choking, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, nausea, narcosis, or coma. Eye contact will cause irritation and skin contact causes defatting, irritation, and dermatitis. Ingestion may result in spontaneous vomiting with possible aspiration into the lungs which could result in pulmonary edema.EMERGENCY MEDICAL PROCEDURES
* Emergency medical procedures: [NIOSH to supply]
5. Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e.g., those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200]). All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures, the location and proper use of emergency equipment, and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations.EXPOSURE SOURCES AND CONTROL METHODS
The following operations may involve VM & P naphtha and lead to worker exposures to this substance:
Good sources of information about control methods are as follows:
1. ACGIH . Industrial ventilation--a manual of recommended practice. 21st ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
2. Burton DJ . Industrial ventilation--a self study companion. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
3. Alden JL, Kane JM . Design of industrial ventilation systems. New York, NY: Industrial Press, Inc.
4. Wadden RA, Scheff PA . Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
5. Plog BA . Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Chicago, IL: National Safety Council.
OSHA is currently developing requirements for medical surveillance. When these requirements are promulgated, readers should refer to them for additional information and to determine whether employers whose employees are exposed to VM & P naphtha are required to implement medical surveillance procedures.
* Medical Screening
Workers who may be exposed to chemical hazards should be monitored in a systematic program of medical surveillance that is intended to prevent occupational injury and disease. The program should include education of employers and workers about work-related hazards, early detection of adverse health effects, and referral of workers for diagnosis and treatment. The occurrence of disease or other work-related adverse health effects should prompt immediate evaluation of primary preventive measures (e.g., industrial hygiene monitoring, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment). A medical surveillance program is intended to supplement, not replace, such measures. To detect and control work-related health effects, medical evaluations should be performed (1) before job placement, (2) periodically during the term of employment, and (3) at the time of job transfer or termination.* Preplacement medical evaluation
Before a worker is placed in a job with a potential for exposure to VM & P naphtha, a licensed health care professional should evaluate and document the worker's baseline health status with thorough medical, environmental, and occupational histories, a physical examination, and physiologic and laboratory tests appropriate for the anticipated occupational risks. These should concentrate on the function and integrity of the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and central nervous system (if benzene is present this should include the hematopoietic system). Medical surveillance for respiratory disease should be conducted using the principles and methods recommended by the American Thoracic Society.* Periodic medical evaluations
Occupational health interviews and physical examinations should be performed at regular intervals during the employment period, as mandated by any applicable Federal, State, or local standard. Where no standard exists and the hazard is minimal, evaluations should be conducted every 3 to 5 years or as frequently as recommended by an experienced occupational health physician. Additional examinations may be necessary if a worker develops symptoms attributable to VM & P naphtha exposure. The interviews, examinations, and medical screening tests should focus on identifying the adverse effects of VM & P naphtha on the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or central nervous system (if benzene is present this should include the hematopoietic system). Current health status should be compared with the baseline health status of the individual worker or with expected values for a suitable reference population.* Termination medical evaluations
The medical, environmental, and occupational history interviews, the physical examination, and selected physiologic or laboratory tests that were conducted at the time of placement should be repeated at the time of job transfer or termination to determine the worker's medical status at the end of his or her employment. Any changes in the worker's health status should be compared with those expected for a suitable reference population.* Biological monitoring
Biological monitoring involves sampling and analyzing body tissues or fluids to provide an index of exposure to a toxic substance or metabolite. No biological monitoring test acceptable for routine use has yet been developed for VM & P naphtha.WORKPLACE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT
Determination of a worker's exposure to airborne VM & P naphtha is made using a charcoal tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh). Samples are collected at a maximum flow rate of 0.2 liter/minute (TWA or STEL measurements) until a maximum collection volume of 3 liters is reached. The sample is then treated with 99 to 1, carbon disulfide to dimethylformamide extraction solvent. Analysis is conducted by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). This method (OSHA ID-48) is described in the OSHA Computerized Information System [OSHA 1994] and is fully validated. NIOSH has published a similar method for the determination of a worker's exposure to VM & P naphtha (Method No. 1550) in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods [NIOSH 1994b].
PERSONAL HYGIENE PROCEDURES
If VM & P naphtha contacts the skin, workers should immediately wash the affected areas with large amounts of soap and water.
Clothing contaminated with VM & P naphtha should be removed immediately, and provisions should be made for the safe removal of the chemical from the clothing. Persons laundering the clothes should be informed of the hazardous properties of VM & P naphtha, particularly its potential for causing eye and skin irritation (and central nervous system depression if concentrations are high).
A worker who handles VM & P naphtha should thoroughly wash hands, forearms, and face with soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using toilet facilities, applying cosmetics, or taking medication.
Workers should not eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or take medication in areas where VM & P naphtha or a solution containing VM & P naphtha is handled, processed, or stored.
VM & P naphtha should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200]. Containers of VM & P naphtha should be protected from physical damage and ignition sources, and should be stored separately from strong oxidizers such as chlorine, bromine, and fluorine.
SPILLS AND LEAKS
In the event of a spill or leak involving VM & P naphtha, persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak:
1. Do not touch the spilled material; stop the leak if it is possible to do so without risk.
2. Notify safety personnel.
3. Remove all sources of heat and ignition.
4. Ventilate the area of the spill or leak.
5. Use non-sparking tools.
6. Water spray may be used to reduce vapors, but the spray may not prevent ignition in closed spaces.
7. For small spills, take up with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into closed containers for later disposal.
8. For large spills, build dikes far ahead of the spill to contain the VM & P naphtha for later reclamation or disposal.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning, reportable quantities of hazardous releases, community right-to-know, and hazardous waste management may change over time. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available.
* Emergency planning requirements
VM & P Naphtha is not subject to EPA emergency planning requirements under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Title III) in 42 USC 11022.* Reportable quantity requirements for hazardous releases
A hazardous substance release is defined by EPA as any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment (including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical, employers are required to notify the proper Federal, State, and local authorities [40 CFR 355.40].* Community right-to-know requirements
Employers are not required by EPA in 40 CFR Part 372.30 to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to EPA reporting the amount of VM & P naphtha emitted or released from their facility annually.* Hazardous waste management requirements
EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.21-261.24. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq.], EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. Although VM & P naphtha is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA, EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above.RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
* Conditions for respirator use
Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. However, some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of VM & P naphtha exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed, (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures, (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and (4) during emergencies. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).* Respiratory protection program
Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that, at a minimum, complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910.134]. Such a program must include respirator selection, an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator, the regular training of personnel, respirator fit testing, periodic workplace monitoring, and regular respirator maintenance, inspection, and cleaning. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users, consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a].PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected, used, and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with VM & P naphtha. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., gloves, sleeves, encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to VM & P naphtha. The resistance of various materials to permeation by naphthas of less than 20 percent aromatics (VM & P naphtha) is shown below:
To evaluate the use of these materials with VM & P naphtha, users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e.g., butyl) produced by different manufacturers. In addition, the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components.
Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve VM & P naphtha.
Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long, minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent, caustic, or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes.
In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel (e.g., aprons, encapsulating suits), workers should wear work uniforms, coveralls, or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk.
Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness.
Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation, especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments.
ACGIH . Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
ACGIH . 1994-1995 Threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
ATS . Standardization of spirometry -- 1987 update. American Thoracic Society. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:1285-1296.
CFR. Code of Federal regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of the Federal Register.
Clayton G, Clayton F [1981-1982]. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 3rd rev. ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
DOT . 1993 Emergency response guidebook, guide 27. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration.
Forsberg K, Mansdorf SZ . Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Genium . Material safety data sheet No. 391. Schenectady, NY: Genium Publishing Corporation.
Mickelsen RL, Hall RC . A breakthrough time comparison of nitrile and neoprene glove materials produced by different glove manufacturers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 48(11): 941-947.
Mickelsen RL, Hall RC, Chern RT, Myers JR . Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 52(10): 445-447.
NFPA . Fire protection guide on hazardous materials. 9th ed. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.
NIOSH [1987a]. NIOSH guide to industrial respiratory protection. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 87-116.
NIOSH [1987b]. NIOSH respirator decision logic. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 87-108.
NIOSH . Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: VM & P naphtha. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, Technical Information Branch.
NIOSH . Recommendations for occupational safety and health: Compendium of policy documents and statements. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 92-100.
NIOSH [1994a]. NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116.
NIOSH [1994b]. NIOSH manual of analytical methods. 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-113.
NJDH . Hazardous substance fact sheet: VM & P naphtha. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Health.
OSHA . Computerized information system. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Sax NI, Lewis RJ . Dangerous properties of industrial materials. 7th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Sittig M . Handbook of toxic and hazardous chemicals. 3rd ed. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Publications.
USC. United States code. Washington. DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Windholz M, ed. . Merck Index 10th ed. Rahway, NJ: Merck & Company.