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This guideline summarizes pertinent information about vinyl cyclohexene dioxide for workers and employers as well as for physicians, industrial hygienists, and other occupational safety and health professionals who may need such information to conduct effective occupational safety and health programs. Recommendations may be superseded by new developments in these fields; readers are therefore advised to regard these recommendations as general guidelines and to determine whether new information is available.
(For Structure, see paper copy)* Synonyms
1,2-Epoxy-4-(epoxyethyl)cyclohexane; 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide; VCD* Identifiers
1. CAS No.: 106-87-6* Appearance and odor
Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is a clear, colorless to pale-yellow liquid.CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
* Physical data
1. Molecular weight: 140.20* Reactivity
1. Conditions contributing to instability: Exposure to heat or flames.* Flammability
The National Fire Protection Association has not assigned a flammability rating to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide.EXPOSURE LIMITS
* OSHA PEL
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not currently regulate vinyl cyclohexene dioxide.* NIOSH REL
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established a recommended exposure limit (REL) for vinyl cyclohexene dioxide of 10 parts per million (ppm) parts of air (60 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for up to a 10-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek. NIOSH considers vinyl cyclohexene dioxide a potential human carcinogen. NIOSH also assigns a "Skin" notation, which indicates that the cutaneous route of exposure, including mucous membranes and eyes, contributes to overall exposure [NIOSH 1992].* ACGIH TLV
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has assigned vinyl cyclohexene dioxide a threshold limit value (TLV) of 10 ppm (57 mg/m(3)) as a TWA for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek. The ACGIH considers vinyl cyclohexene a suspected human carcinogen (A2). The ACGIH also assigns a "Skin" notation to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide [ACGIH 1994, p. 36].* Rationale for Limits
The NIOSH limit is based on the risk of potential cancer (skin tumors in animals) [NIOSH 1992].
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
* Routes of Exposure
Exposure to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide can occur through inhalation, ingestion, eye or skin contact, and absorption through the skin.* Summary of toxicology
1. Effects on Animals: Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is a severe irritant, a mutagen and a carcinogen in experimental animals. Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is severely irritating to the rabbit eye [ACGIH 1991]. Topical administration of undiluted vinyl cyclohexene dioxide to rabbits caused local edema and hyperemia comparable to a mild to moderate first degree burn [ACGIH 1991]. Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide only infrequently caused sensitization in guinea pigs [ACGIH 1991]. The dermal LD(50) in rabbits is 680 mg/kg [ACGIH 1991]. The oral LD(50) in rats is 2,130 mg/kg [NIOSH 1991]. The 4-hour LC(50) in rats was 800 ppm; irritation of the respiratory tract and acute pulmonary congestion occurred during exposure [ACGIH 1991]. Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is a mutagen in in vitro test systems using mammalian cells and bacteria [NIOSH 1991; ACGIH 1991]. In a chronic study, rats were administered vinyl cyclohexene dioxide dissolved in acetone at doses of 0, 15 or 30 mg/animal, 5 days/week for 105 weeks and mice were administered 0, 2.5, 5, or 50 mg/animal 5 days/week for 103 weeks [ACGIH 1991]. The vinyl cyclohexene dioxide treatment was acutely necrotizing causing local ulcerations. In addition, mice and rats developed acanthosis and hyperkeratosis at the site of treatment and the mice also developed sebaceous gland hyperplasia. There was clear evidence of carcinogenicity in rats based on an increased incidence of squamous cell and basal cell papillomas of the skin. There was clear evidence of carcinogenicity in mice based on an increased incidence of squamous cell carcinomas in males and female mice and an increased incidence of ovarian granulosa cell neoplasms in female mice [ACGIH 1991]. In two other studies, vinyl cyclohexene dioxide also caused skin tumors after chronic dermal treatment [ACGIH 1991]. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has examined the carcinogenicity of vinyl cyclohexene dioxide in experimental animals and concluded that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of this substance [IARC 1987].* Signs and symptoms of exposure
1. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide causes mild to moderate skin irritation in humans.EMERGENCY MEDICAL PROCEDURES
* Emergency medical procedures: [NIOSH to supply]
5. Rescue: Remove an incapacitated worker from further exposure and implement appropriate emergency procedures (e.g., those listed on the Material Safety Data Sheet required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200]). All workers should be familiar with emergency procedures, the location and proper use of emergency equipment, and methods of protecting themselves during rescue operations.EXPOSURE SOURCES AND CONTROL METHODS
The following operations may involve vinyl cyclohexene dioxide and lead to worker exposures to this substance:
Workers responding to a release or potential release of a hazardous substance must be protected as required by paragraph (q) of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard [29 CFR 1910.120].
Good sources of information about control methods are as follows:
1. ACGIH . Industrial ventilation -- a manual of recommended practice. 21st ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
2. Burton DJ . Industrial ventilation -- a self study companion. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
3. Alden JL, Kane JM . Design of industrial ventilation systems. New York, NY: Industrial Press, Inc.
4. Wadden RA, Scheff PA . Engineering design for control of workplace hazards. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
5. Plog BA . Fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Chicago, IL: National Safety Council.
OSHA is currently developing requirements for medical surveillance. When these requirements are promulgated, readers should refer to them for additional information and to determine whether employers whose employees are exposed to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide are required to implement medical surveillance procedures.
* Medical Screening
Workers who may be exposed to chemical hazards should be monitored in a systematic program of medical surveillance that is intended to prevent occupational injury and disease. The program should include education of employers and workers about work-related hazards, early detection of adverse health effects, and referral of workers for diagnosis and treatment. The occurrence of disease or other work- related adverse health effects should prompt immediate evaluation of primary preventive measures (e.g., industrial hygiene monitoring, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment). A medical surveillance program is intended to supplement, not replace, such measures. To detect and control work-related health effects, medical evaluations should be performed (1) before job placement, (2) periodically during the term of employment, and (3) at the time of job transfer or termination.* Preplacement medical evaluation
Before a worker is placed in a job with a potential for exposure to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide, a licensed health care professional should evaluate and document the worker's baseline health status with thorough medical, environmental, and occupational histories, a physical examination, and physiologic and laboratory tests appropriate for the anticipated occupational risks. These should concentrate on the function and integrity of the skin and respiratory system. Medical surveillance for respiratory disease should be conducted using the principles and methods recommended by the American Thoracic Society.* Periodic medical evaluations
Occupational health interviews and physical examinations should be performed at regular intervals during the employment period, as mandated by any applicable Federal, State, or local standard. Where no standard exists and the hazard is minimal, evaluations should be conducted every 3 to 5 years or as frequently as recommended by an experienced occupational health physician. Additional examinations may be necessary if a worker develops symptoms attributable to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide exposure. The interviews, examinations, and medical screening tests should focus on identifying the adverse effects of vinyl cyclohexene dioxide on the skin or respiratory system. Current health status should be compared with the baseline health status of the individual worker or with expected values for a suitable reference population.* Termination medical evaluations
The medical, environmental, and occupational history interviews, the physical examination, and selected physiologic or laboratory tests that were conducted at the time of placement should be repeated at the time of job transfer or termination to determine the worker's medical status at the end of his or her employment. Any changes in the worker's health status should be compared with those expected for a suitable reference population. Because occupational exposure to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide may cause diseases with prolonged latent periods, the need for medical surveillance may extend well beyond the termination of employment.* Biological monitoring
Biological monitoring involves sampling and analyzing body tissues or fluids to provide an index of exposure to a toxic substance or metabolite. No biological monitoring test acceptable for routine use has yet been developed for vinyl cyclohexene dioxide.WORKPLACE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT
Determination of a worker's exposure to airborne vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is made using a XAD-2 tube (150/75 mg sections, 20/50 mesh). Samples are collected at a recommended flow rate of 0.2 liter/minute until a recommended collection volume of 10 liters is reached. The sample is then treated with carbon disulfide. Analysis is conducted by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). This method is described in the OSHA Computerized Information System [OSHA 1994] and is not yet validated.
PERSONAL HYGIENE PROCEDURES
If vinyl cyclohexene dioxide contacts the skin, workers should flush the affected areas immediately with plenty of water, followed by washing with soap and water.
Clothing contaminated with vinyl cyclohexene dioxide should be removed immediately, and provisions should be made for the safe removal of the chemical from the clothing. Persons laundering the clothes should be informed of the hazardous properties of vinyl cyclohexene dioxide, particularly its potential for causing irritation and the possibility of its causing cancer.
A worker who handles vinyl cyclohexene dioxide should thoroughly wash hands, forearms, and face with soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using toilet facilities, applying cosmetics, or taking medication.
Workers should not eat, drink, use tobacco products, apply cosmetics, or take medication in areas where vinyl cyclohexene dioxide or a solution containing vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is handled, processed, or stored.
Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard [29 CFR 1910.1200]. Containers of vinyl cyclohexene dioxide should be protected from moisture and physical damage, and should be stored separately from active hydrogen compounds such as alcohols, amines and water [NLM 1992; NIOSH 1994].
SPILLS AND LEAKS
In the event of a spill or leak involving vinyl cyclohexene dioxide, persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak:
1. Do not touch the spilled material; stop the leak if it is possible to do so without risk.
2. Ventilate the area of the spill or leak.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for emergency planning, reportable quantities of hazardous releases, community right-to-know, and hazardous waste management may change over time. Users are therefore advised to determine periodically whether new information is available.
* Emergency planning requirements
Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is not subject to EPA emergency planning requirements under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Title III) in 42 USC 11022.* Reportable quantity requirements for hazardous releases
A hazardous substance release is defined by EPA as any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment (including the abandonment or discarding of contaminated containers) of hazardous substances. In the event of a release that is above the reportable quantity for that chemical, employers are required to notify the proper Federal, State, and local authorities [40 CFR 355.40].* Community right-to-know requirements
Employers are not required by EPA in 40 CFR Part 372.30 to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory form (Form R) to EPA reporting the amount of vinyl cyclohexene dioxide emitted or released from their facility annually.* Hazardous waste management requirements
EPA considers a waste to be hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity as defined in 40 CFR 261.21-261.24. Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) [40 USC 6901 et seq.], EPA has specifically listed many chemical wastes as hazardous. Although vinyl cyclohexene dioxide is not specifically listed as a hazardous waste under RCRA, EPA requires employers to treat waste as hazardous if it exhibits any of the characteristics discussed above.RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
* Conditions for respirator use
Good industrial hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. However, some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposure. Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of vinyl cyclohexene dioxide exceeds prescribed exposure limits. Respirators may be used (1) before engineering controls have been installed, (2) during work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures, (3) during operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels, and (4) during emergencies. Workers should only use respirators that have been approved by NIOSH and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).* Respiratory protection program
Employers should institute a complete respiratory protection program that, at a minimum, complies with the requirements of OSHA's Respiratory Protection Standard [29 CFR 1910.134]. Such a program must include respirator selection, an evaluation of the worker's ability to perform the work while wearing a respirator, the regular training of personnel, respirator fit testing, periodic workplace monitoring, and regular respirator maintenance, inspection, and cleaning. The implementation of an adequate respiratory protection program (including selection of the correct respirator) requires that a knowledgeable person be in charge of the program and that the program be evaluated regularly. For additional information on the selection and use of respirators and on the medical screening of respirator users, consult the latest edition of the NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic [NIOSH 1987b] and the NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection [NIOSH 1987a].PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Workers should use appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment that must be carefully selected, used, and maintained to be effective in preventing skin contact with vinyl cyclohexene dioxide. The selection of the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (e.g., gloves, sleeves, encapsulating suits) should be based on the extent of the worker's potential exposure to vinyl cyclohexene dioxide. There are no published reports on the resistance of various materials to permeation by vinyl cyclohexene dioxide.
To evaluate the use of PPE materials with vinyl cyclohexene dioxide, users should consult the best available performance data and manufacturers' recommendations. Significant differences have been demonstrated in the chemical resistance of generically similar PPE materials (e.g., butyl) produced by different manufacturers. In addition, the chemical resistance of a mixture may be significantly different from that of any of its neat components.
Any chemical-resistant clothing that is used should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness in preventing dermal contact. Safety showers and eye wash stations should be located close to operations that involve vinyl cyclohexene dioxide.
Splash-proof chemical safety goggles or face shields (20 to 30 cm long, minimum) should be worn during any operation in which a solvent, caustic, or other toxic substance may be splashed into the eyes.
In addition to the possible need for wearing protective outer apparel (e.g., aprons, encapsulating suits), workers should wear work uniforms, coveralls, or similar full-body coverings that are laundered each day. Employers should provide lockers or other closed areas to store work and street clothing separately. Employers should collect work clothing at the end of each work shift and provide for its laundering. Laundry personnel should be informed about the potential hazards of handling contaminated clothing and instructed about measures to minimize their health risk.
Protective clothing should be kept free of oil and grease and should be inspected and maintained regularly to preserve its effectiveness.
Protective clothing may interfere with the body's heat dissipation, especially during hot weather or during work in hot or poorly ventilated work environments.
ACGIH . Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
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NIOSH . Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances: Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, Technical Information Branch.
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NJDH . Hazardous substance fact sheet: Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Health.
NLM . Hazardous substances data bank: Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine.
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